SECURE SYNOPSIS: 06 January 2017
NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.
General Studies – 1;
Topic: Art and culture; Role of women
Indian classical music has got a long and rich history with its origin in vedic period. In society where male dominance was intrinsically nurtured in every walk of life, music was no exception. Women had to break the customs and fight rebelliously against the societal norms for rights and position in the sphere of Indian classical music. A list of some of the prominent women musicians in the 20th century is given below.
Hindustani music (North India): Begum Akhtar, Girija Devi, Gangubai Hungal, Kishori Amonkar, Parveen Sultana, Anurahda Pal
Carnatic music (South India): D. K. Pattammal, M. S. Subbalakshmi, M. L. Vasantha Kumari
Sufi music: Abida Parveen, Shubha Mudgal
Bollywood music: Lata Mangeshkar
Evolution and rise of women in music has greatly contributed to the cause of popularization of Indian classical music. In the twentieth century, with rise in constitutional and societal standards of women, coupled with renewed interests in history and classical art forms, more and more women musicians and organizations with strong traditional links had flourished. Contribution of some of them-
- Sabha Culture: Alamelu Jayarama Iyer was the first woman to run a Sabha. She founded Muthialpet Sri Venkatesa Bhakta Sabha for providing the platform to young talent and remunerating them. It was in 1920s and 1930s sabhas got popularity in Madras. The Music Academy, the RR Sabha and several others such as the short-lived Vainika Gayaka Sabha, the Sangita Shala and the Jagannatha Bhakta Sabha came up then.
- Popularization: Singer like Begum Akhtar and MS. Subbalaksmi popularized the music. Where Begum Akhtar contributed towards popularization odf Ghazals and Thumri , MS Subbalakshmi popularized Carnatic music all over the world.
- Research: E.g: Dr. Sumati Mutatkar apart from being a vocalist from Agra Gharana also supervised numerous research programs in the field of music, as well published several books on the subject.
- Fellowship: Women musicians like C Sarashwati Bai, Anjani Bai Malpekar, have been conferred with Sangeet Natak Akademi fellowships.
- Anuradha pal has made a remarkable place in playing classical musical instrument widely known as male dominated field.BBC radio called among top 5 female musician of India.
- Singers like Lata Mangeshgar are from Gwalior Gharana has contributed as singer, composer has promoted classical music and evolved it under different Bollywood songs which attracts world’s attention in modern times.
- Veenai Dhanammal: She was a highly accomplished Carnatic musician, and the torchbearer of the school of Carnatic music that goes by her name. She was both a vocalist and a performer on the Saraswati veena. The prefix “Veenai” in her name is an indicator of her exceptional mastery of that instrument.
- Begum Akhtar: She was a well-known Indian singer of Ghazal, Dadra, and a Thumri genre of Hindustani classical music. She was given the title of Mallika-e-Ghazal (Queen of Ghazals).
Women have contributed immensely in almost every aspects of Indian classical music and the music still continues to evolve as a result of such contributions.
General Studies – 2
Topic : Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate
The election of Donald Trump as the president of USA has posed different challenges to the functioning of United Nations considering his anti-UN rhetoric and the fact that USA is the biggest contributor to the UN.
Challenges to the UN secretary general-
- Donald trump thinks that UN is not serving USA’s purposes anymore. USA contributes around 28% of the funds to UN. This stance of Trump may lead to slashing of funds on the part of USA. This could severely affect the functioning and administration of UN.
- Many of Mr. Trump’s campaign pronouncements were at odds with the UN, including climate change, human rights, the Iran deal, the refugee crisis, and the West Asia peace process.
- He vowed to cancel billions in payments to the UN climate change program. Calling climate change a “hoax invented by the Chinese,” he threatened to cancel the Paris Agreement. The withdrawal of the America would cripple the efforts to fight against climate change.
- Trump’s stance against UN and other multilateral institutions and his America first policy is against the spirit of the UNO and its objectives.
- Appointment of Nickey Haley as an ambassador to the UN and Rex Tillerson as Secretary of state whose lack of international political experience and absence of any foreign policy roadmap will make things difficult for Mr. Antonio and to UN.
How UN secretary general should tackle the challenges?
- If UN secretary general can reduce the gap and differences between US and Russia that can be greatest push for world security. UN had to take lead in enabling way forward by timely interference and support.
- UN should reduce its dependence for funds on the USA and should enlist more funds from the other leading powers like China, Russia, Germany, Japan, India etc.
- UN secretary general will have to show strong will in moving ahead in the issues like climate change even if USA withdraws.
- Projecting himself from the outset as a reformer of the UN could lead to softening of stance by Trump.
- The existing issues like Syrian civil war, North Korea’s nuclear program, peace process in Afghanistan should be dealt with bringing the entire stakeholder to the table under the aegis of UNO.
The rising protectionism and extreme nationalism goes against the basic principles of the UN. The anti UN rhetoric of the Trump made during campaigns may not materialize completely. However the UN secretary general would have to show strong will to deal with USA in some issues and without USA in others.
Topic: Governance; Role of civil services
Bengaluru people had gathered at MG Road and Brigade Road – to welcome the New Year. But despite “elaborate” security arrangements, women were molested, and children scared out of their wits, while male friends and relatives had a tough time protecting them from unruly men. And all this happened despite the 1,500 policemen deployed in the area.
Their role is critical in not only mitigating such incidences but also effectively ensuring the law and order situation if they occurs unfortunately.
Role of police is crucial:-
- To make sufficient preparation in advance to manage a big event and zone down the areas of high criminal activities.
- To enforce strict code of mass control and crowd management in order to check any such incidence.
- To instill the fear into the minds of anti-social elements and stalkers in order to discourage their intentions of teasing, molesting women.
- In deploying more women coups to effectively ensure safety and security of women.
- To make the women in city trained for basic self defence skills as done by the Delhi Police forces.
- In making citizens aware about effective rescue and stampeded guidelines in order to reduce the impact of such events if they occur.
- Technology help is crucial like use of drone surveillance. Installations of CCTv cameras at important places.
Conclusion:- The professionalism in Indian police forces has gone down. The need of hour is to do SMART policing as suggested by our Prime Minister. The implementation of innovative ideas like Pink Hoyasala cars by Karnataka government for women security is a welcome step. However only police forces won’t be able to ensure the complete prevention of such incidences, effective cooperation from society is also needed.
General Studies – 3
Topic: Role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security;
Fake news is a type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation (false information), be it via the traditional print or broadcasting news media or via Internet-based social media. To qualify as fake news, a story has to be written and published with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically.
Some recent incidences of fake news:-
- Pakistan’s Defence Minister Khawaja Muhammad Asif, for all practical purposes, recently threatened Israel with a retaliatory nuclear attack, in response to a fake news report that the Israelis had said they would use nuclear weapons against Pakistan if it sent ground troops to Syria.
- Earlier, a man fired an assault rifle in a pizzeria in Washington, D.C. after reading online that it was involved in a child trafficking ring linked to Hillary Clinton.
- In India, a fake story said there was a GPS tracking chip embedded in the new Rs.2,000 note.
Issues to be addressed while stopping the spread of fake news:-
- These news may be fake but their impact is real and far reaching. A recent study from the Pew Research Center found that approximately two-thirds of Americans felt ‘fake news’ had caused a “great deal of confusion” over current affairs.
- It causes instability in the countries specially at times of elections, referendum, major governmental decisions like demonetization in India. Germany is considering imposing a €500,000 fine on Facebook if it shares fake news, and an Italian regulator has asked European countries to set up an agency to combat fake news.
- They hampers some fundamental rights of people such as right to freedom and speech, right to know etc.
- They might even cause distrust between the citizens and government of the day.
- It may create havoc or unsuitable conditions and disruptions of daily life of common people.
- They lowers the credibility of social media and news agencies. It will have immense impact on misguidance of citizens by them.
- Lack of awareness about the existence and impact of fake news often leads to their widespread outreach.
Steps to be taken to address the issue of fake news:-
- Regulation:- When regulation is needed, it is vital that it comes from within. Social media and news organisations can regulate themselves at different levels, most importantly through rigorous internal editorial and advertising standards.
- Cooperation and widespread implementation:- Industry-wide measures, such as adherence to a charter of standards on fake news and imposition of fines on organisations falling short of these, could be done.
- Definition: Meanwhile, the broad contours of what constitutes fake news need to be defined in order to effectively curb them.
- Responsibility:- News and social media companies have a moral responsibility to ensure that they do not, directly or otherwise, deliberately misrepresent the facts to their audiences and pass them off for news.
- Technical empowerment:- special task forces of cyber security personals, cyber fake news teams need to be set up in order to ensure effective technical backings to curb the fake news.
Everything glitter is not gold and everything we hear is not true so one should go for authencity and rationality of mind and do things for the greater good of the society to bring tranquility.