AIR spotlight summary on “Formation of States and their Achievements”.
Prime minister inaugurated the 16th foundation day celebrations of Chhattisgarh. He launched a scheme for the benefit of the farmers known as Saur Sujala Scheme.
- The new states have not necessarily being created only for administration purpose. There are various reasons for the demand and creation of new states. In 1953 the first state was created on the basis of language.
- From 1953 upto 1960 the process of creation of states was primarily on basis of language. Starting with 1953 with the creation of Andhra Pradesh and finally upto 1960 with the bifurcation of Bombay into Gujarat and Maharashtra and formation of Punjab and Haryana on 1st November 1966.
- At the time of framing of the constitution, the Dhar Commission and others did not favour the linguistic states. Later the formation of states was based on different understanding:
- On fulfilment of Ethnic appraisement, the states of North-East region came into existence.
- Some states were formed on the question of development to reduce the states disparities. For example the three states of Chhattisgarh, Uttrakhand and Jharkhand were primarily the areas within a larger state where they had a feeling of cultural affinity and at the same time economically deprived. The same was the case with Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
- The diversity of India is enormous. Within this diversity there are regional disparities. A particular cultural group living in a wider state does feel a sense of alienation when that group feels that they are not towards development because they are in a minority status.
- All the states which are formed after bifurcation shows that it increases the level of satisfaction and more belonging to India.
- In case of Uttar Pradesh (UP), even an efficient leader cannot do much in UP because of the geographical size of UP and because it is difficult to reach all the districts. So the size, leadership, geographical location matters and also the relationship with the centre matters for any development.
Role of Development in building new states
- Development has taken a very important role in building of the Chhattisgarh society. Naxalism is on the vain and development is paramount. The gap between the rich and the poor is narrowing down gradually. So we can say that there are some states where the division of states have fructified into the purpose it were intended for. If the division is on rational grounds with effective leadership it benefits the state.
- If there is a small state and the leadership is highly glue to development commitment, then the development takes a different trajectory. That is where the role of Chhattisgarh matters. It can be an icon for rest of the states.
- The regional disparity in India is enormous and it exists in India at two levels. One at intra-state and the second is inter-state levels. The question of regional policy has been lacking in India. The development was more in developed state and less in under developed state.
- Good Governance does not depend on the size of the state. Haryana when it was part of Punjab remained underdeveloped and neglected. From 1966 onwards we can see the amount of development Haryana has seen. It is because of its size, nearness to Delhi, because of the role of leadership and sense of competition.
- The competitive zeal which was seen in MP and Chhattisgarh was needed in Bihar and Jharkhand. Jharkhand has rich resources, but there was lack of good governance and leadership.
Creating new states
- It involves high costs for creating a new state, as seen in Telangana. But it gives an opportunity to develop new urban areas and it generates new jobs. It is an opportunity to decongest other areas and provide opportunities for new kind of planned urbanisation. So cost factors are not the only factors to be considered for any developmental purposes.
- Overall the smaller state provides a better opportunity for better good governance and a better way of development. But this is not the panacea and not the only solution.
Saur Sujala Scheme
- Prime Minister inaugurated a new scheme known as Saur Sujala Scheme. The Chhattisgarh government with the help of centre is giving solar power driven pumps at highly subsidised rate for irrigation purpose.
- The deteriorating situation of the farmers all over India include farmer suicide, they feel neglected and alienated. The initiatives for the farmers must be welcomed and should be appreciated.
Emphasis on Solar Energy
- Solar energy is an imperative to India and India seeks 20,000 MW of solar power capacity by 2020. Even atomic energy cannot sustain the type of development in terms of environmental protection.
- The cost of nuclear energy is very high and the installation of 1MW of nuclear power costs around 15 crore rupees. The risk factors involved in spite of all precautions is high. At any time any country can say no to the assistance for nuclear energy. So solar energy is the best available option available. There are no limitations over availability and environmental concerns about solar energy.
- The fossil fuels like coal are limited resources and have high import costs. It is not environmentally friendly.