SYNOPSIS: Insights Secure Q&A March 31, 2016
This is a new feature. As feedback from our side on your answers is missing, we thought of providing detailed synopsis of important Secure questions on daily basis so that you could revise our synopsis and compare it with your answers. We intend to post synopsis of Secure questions every next day of posting questions on website.
You must write answers on your own and compare them with these synopses. If you depend on these synopses blindly, be sure of facing disaster in Mains. Until and unless you practice answer writing on your own, you will not improve in speed, content and writing skills. Keep separate notebooks for all GS papers and write your answers in them regularly. Now and then keep posting your answer on website too (Optional). Some people have the tendency of copying content from others answers and pasting them in a document for each and every question. This might help in revision, but if you do not write on your own, you can’t write a good answer in real exam. This is our experience at offline classes. We have seen many students who think they were regularly following Secure, yet fail to clear Mains. So, never give up writing.
Also never give up reviewing others answers. You should review others answers to know different perspectives put forth by them, especially to opinion based questions. This effort by us should not lead to dependency on these synopses. This effort should be treated as complimentary to your ongoing writing practice and answer reviewing process.
These synopses will be exhaustive – covering all the points demanded by question. We will not stick to word limit. You need to identify most important points and make sure these points are covered in your answer. Please remember that these are not ‘Model Answers’. These are just pointers for you to add extra points and to stick to demand of the question – which you might have missed while answering.
As you might be aware of, this exercise requires lots of time and energy (10 Hours), that to do it on daily basis! Your cooperation is needed to sustain this feature.
Please provide your valuable feedback in the comment section to improve and sustain this initiative successfully.
General Studies – 1;
Topic: World history
Fascism of Nazi party and Hitler – Believed in superiority of Aryan race, and need for maintaining the Racial purity on the one side and Inferiority of Jews as low/Evil race (believed they were affecting the lives of Germans negatively)
Imposed rules for separation of Jews and Germans (Nuremberg Laws, 1925 which seeks to prohibit marital and sexual relations of Germans with Jews), since, he believed Jews are inferior and could pollute the pure Aryan blood (Germans) and lead to loss of Purity of Race —— This initial separation in public sphere culminated in the Holocaust to completely eliminate the Jewish race
Believed that Jews were responsible for all the ills of German society and they are exploitative
Anti Semitism – Was larger agenda of Nazis ideas and Hitler wanted to exterminate the whole Jewish race
Treaty of Versailles and Blame game– Believed that harsh conditions under Treaty of Versailles were due to the lobby of Jewish bankers and Industrialists. Since, Germans suffered humiliation due to Treaty of Versailles and subsequent economic disaster of hyperinflation —- Jews were targeted as the source of all these ills (Rich and industrialist section).
Hence, Ethnocentric notion of German (Aryan) racial superiority, Prejudices towards jewish community and efforts to prevent racial admixtures and pollution of pure Aryan race and extreme form of Fascism, state sponsored community segregation based on racial criteria, above all dictatorial rule of Hitler culminated in the Holocaust of Jews.
Different between Anti Zionism and Anti Semitism
Anti Zionism is opposition to the ethnonationalist and political movement of Jews that supports the establishment of a Jewish state as a Jewish homeland in Israel, where as Anti Semitism is hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group
Anti Zionism is a political ideology and Anti Semitism is the extreme form of Ethnocentrism and hatred towards jewish community
Anti-semitism etymologically is hatred of all Semitic prople, including Arabs, Assyrians, Ethiopians and Jews
But, Anti Zionism is limited to ethnonationalist movement of Jews
Anti Zionism sometimes may have rational ideology (Supporters of Palestine claim), but, Anti Semitism is illogical, irrational and grossly Xenophobic
General Studies – 2
Topic:Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
2) “However good a Constitution may be, if those who are implementing it are not good, it will prove to be bad.” In the light of recent events, critically comment on the importance of constitutional functionaries and institutions in implementing the Constitution in letter and spirit. (200 Words)
Importance of constitutional functionaries and institutions in implementing in letter and spirit
Parliament and state legislature are the highest deliberative body of the Union and state respectively. They are representatives of all the citizens of the country and are enthrusted to carry out functions in the best interest of the nation
However, Political calculations, vested interests are playing prominence in place of national and people’s interest in several occasions.
For instance, frequent stalling of proceedings of parliament on slightest pretext, blocking of passage of key reforms like GST, Bankruptcy law, and illegal issues like Cash for vote scam. Moreover, due to lacunae in the electoral system, Criminal elements are increasingly found presence in the legislature leading to violation of sanctity of the house.
Ministers and their deputies are expected to act as trustees of Public fund and natural resources and are obligated to disperse funds and utilize national resources for development of the poor, depressed and for the larger good.
But, recent, scams like 2G spectrum scam, Mining scam, Coal gate scam, Common wealth scam are blatant violation of constitutional responsibilities enthrusted on the exective.
Upholding the constitutional provisions, to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens and to maintain rule of law are the responsibilities of the judiciary.
Even though, Judiciary is largely independent, active in maintaining the rule of law, several issues like Nepotism, Lack of transparency and accountability, Corruption and post retirement office inducement to judes as Governors are some of the negatives.
Nominal head of the state and acts as a link between the Centre and State and epitome of federal cooperation. According to the constitution purely an independent institution.
But, use of Governor post as post retirement employment for party loyalists undermines its constitutional position. Moreover, position is increasingly used to meet the narrow political interests of the Central government in the respective states and is used as a tool to destabilize the state government in case of a crisis.
CAG – audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. Acts as custodian of public purse.
But, despite its independent nature, delayed submission of reports, limitation in conducting auditing undermines its constitutional responsibilities.
Public service commission
Are expected to fuction as independent institution in conducting examination and recruitment to state and central services
But, recent instance of corruption in some state PSC is a disturbing trend.
Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Ministries and Departments of the Government;
The destruction of the Babri Masjid saw Central government dismiss four State governments lead by the BJP. In 1994, the challenge to this dismissal and earlier impositions of President’s Rule came to be decided by a nine-judge bench in the S.R. Bommai v. Union of India case.
S.R.Bommai Verdict is landmark judgement, where court discussed the provisions of Article 356 of the constitution and related issues.
This case has huge implications on centre state relations also.
- It upheld the dismissal of the BJP governments to protect secularism, which was part of the Constitution’s basic structure
(Basic structure of the Constitution is protected, which include secularism as one of its unit)
- It held that the President was required to act on objective material and that Article 356 could only be resorted to when there was a breakdown of constitutional machinery as distinguished from an ordinary breakdown of law and order.
(It clearly directed the President to follow due process and clarified the difference between Breakdown of constitutional machinery and Ordinary break down of law and order, thereby provided clarification and reduced the scope of discretion which can be used to achieve narrow political interests)
- The court also held that in no case should a State Assembly be dissolved without Parliament approving the proclamation, and that a test of numerical strength could only be conducted on the floor of the Assembly and not outside it.
(It upholds the State legislative assembly as the place to decide the sanctity of the government and directed floor test must be conducted in Assembly, not outside
It also ensured accountability of the executive to the parliament in matter of imposition of president rule. Discretion of Exectuive is curbed due to need for parliamentary approval)
- judgment ruled that an improperly dismissed government could be restored to office.
In this judgment Supreme Court showed signs of becoming a strong bulwark of constitutional right and propriety.
Now, Bommai doctrine is applied to protect states from discretion and political games of Central government
The doctrine in Bommai came to be applied by the Supreme Court in the Bihar case of Rameshwar Prasad & Ors v. Union of India .
(In 2005, Governor Buta Singh, after an inconclusive election, recommended the dissolution of the State Assembly, without it being convened even once. The Court struck down the imposition as unconstitutional)
Topic:Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health
Objectives of National Health Protection Scheme
- To reduce the out of pocket expenditure on health care services for poor
- To provide health cover to the entire family as an unit
- To meet the additional health care needs of senior citizens
- To make quality medicines available at affordable prices for patients
- To eliminate morbidity and mortality due to economic inability to treatment
Significance of the Scheme
- It will provide health cover up to1 lakh per family. This may work like a floater policy which considers the entire family as one unit.
(Provides health care protection to entire family as a unit. It is an improvement over Rashtriya Swashtya Bima Yojana (RSBY), since it provides cover upto Rs.1lakh per family when compared to 3000/- in RSBY)
- OPD is also brought under the ambit of this scheme – Covers larger ailments and costs associated with visits and checkups.
- For senior citizens of age 60 years and above belonging to poor and economically weak families, an additional top-up package up to30,000 will now be provided
(Extra health care needs of the senior citizens are taken care of. Reduces the dependency on Chindren, provides dignity of life and sense of independence to senior citizens)
National health protection scheme will be complemented with the following schemes to achieve comprehensive health protection services to the poor,
- Opening up of 3,000 stores under the Jan Aushadhi Yojana
(Provide quality medicines available at affordable prices, discourages consumption of antibiotics since, it is not entertained in Jan Aushadhi Yojana. Reduces the dependence on branded medicines and decreases the price due to competition from these centres.
Poor will be covered, and much needed health care facilities are provided at affordable costs)
- Dialysis facility – About 220,000 new patients of end-stage renal disease get added every year resulting in additional demand for 34 million dialysis sessions
(Reduces huge out of pocket expenditure, prevents the pushing of APL famlily into BPL line due to recurring high cost health care services, tertiary care affordable and accessible to the poor)
General Studies – 3
Topic: Environmental pollution
E-waste is an important issue for India for several reasons.
- It accounts for four per cent of global e-waste and 2.5 per cent of global GDP (2014 figures) – so it has a higher share of e-waste than its share of gross domestic product (GDP). For China, the two ratios are about the same
- environmental and health:
- vast majority of illegal e-waste ends up in landfills, incinerators, and in ill-equipped recycling facilities creating immense problems and leading to a ‘toxic time bomb’ resulting in elevated risks of cancer and developmental and neurological disorders.
- Compared to conventional municipal wastes, certain components of electronic products contain toxic substances, which can generate a threat to the environment as well as to human health For instance, television and computer monitors normally contain hazardous materials such as lead, mercury, and cadmium.Due to the presence of these substances, recycling and disposal of e-waste becomes an important issue.
- Danger to the software engineers:The Information Technology Revolution intensified the problem of E-waste in India
- workers in the recycling sector are dominated by the urban poor with very low literacy levels and hence they have very little awareness regarding the potential hazards of E-waste. Among the urban poor, there are a substantial number of women and children engaged in various recycling activities.
- For example, Guiyu, Hong Kong a flourishing area of illegal E-waste recycling, is facing acute water shortages due to the contamination of water resources due to e-waste.
Responsibility for Disposal of e waste:-
- Recent United Nations report suggests that in some countries, production of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE),could rise by as much as 500% over the next decade.
- Citizen’s responsibility:
- Every time one replaces their electronic devices, it’s their responsibility to be sure the old one gets recycled properly.
- first step will be to consume less. Don’t get pulled into the hype of new technology.Then, when a person has an expired product, take the time to find a responsible e-waste recycler.
- Make sure the products one purchases are recyclable, and choose products that contain recycled materials.This will also incentivize manufacturers and businesses to use more postconsumer waste
- States Role:
- states have the ability to enforce more stringent regulations .
- Countries such as japan,EU,India have laws that regulate e-waste disposal.
- Internationally Basel Convention treaty restricts the export of hazardous waste from developed nations to developing countries.
- Dumping of e-waste from western countries need to be stopped.Especially in USA a stringent e-waste has to be implemented as most of the e-waste dumpind is originated from there.
- Pollluter pays principle need to be stringently applied.
- Business Organisations Role:
- They make a subastantial contribution to the consumption and disposal of electronics.Thus supervisors in the IT purchasing should ensure the responsible recycling and disposal of company computers and cell phones.
- Manufacturer’s role:
- Extended producer responsibility laws:-
- When producers are responsible for the entire life cycle of the items they make, they’re more apt to use environmentally safe and recyclable materials and to reduce the amount of those materials.India ‘s recent e-waste rules address this problem.
- Most major computer hardware retailers like Apple,HP,Dell have some kind of product take back scheme which has also been highlighted by E-waste rules in India about the buy back scheme.
- ban the export of non-working electronics and e-waste to developing countries like dell did way back in 2009.
- Extended producer responsibility laws:-
Topic:Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth
- gives good guidance and clarity to the business model. This is the foundation for all other regulations and laws. It provides an indirect clarity on tax provisions for the sector
- brings about the long overdue clarity on FDI policy, specifically the much debated marketplace model.
- The cap of 25% on sales by a vendor on marketplace will ensure a broadbasing of vendors for a true marketplace.This will allow online retail companies to widen their seller base
- the government has clarified that the responsibility for products sold will rest solely on the seller, thereby clarifying the intermediary status of such marketplaces.
- Discount clause:
- offline retailers are happy as the clause will restrict the freedom of the e-commerce companies to offer deep discounts to buyers like Flipkart have been wooing customers with discounts that offline retailers are finding difficult to match.
- prohibiting ventures from “directly or indirectly” influencing the sale price of goods. This is construed by most observers as a deterrent for discounts.
- e-commerce entity will not permit more than 25 per cent of the sales through its marketplace from one vendor or their group companies.
- This may require some of the operators to alter their structures (flipkart and amazon)to comply with the conditions
- unnecessary restrictions on the number of sellers and sole responsibility on them for warranty and guarantee will throttle the growth of the industry.
- may prove to be restrictive, more so if the vendor sells high value items
- unequivocal assertion that any ownership of inventory by the entity running the marketplace will render its business into the inventory-based model, where FDI is barred, also makes it clear that these foreign-owned e-commerce enterprises can no longer sell wares sporting their own brand names online
- Enabling the marketplace operator to provide value add services like warehousing, delivery, payment processing etc will improve customer experience and market outreach for small and medium size suppliers
- guidelines view e-commerce marketplaces strictly as a technological mediator and absolve them of legal liability. If a customer receives a bar of soap instead of a smartphone, they will find it difficult to hold Flipkart or Snapdeal liable.
- strict enforcement of the guidelines could make it difficult to access value-for-money deals.Indian shoppers used to get huge discounts from these websites which might not be possible now.
General Studies – 4
Topic: Ethics in public administration
Topic; Role of educational institutions in inculcating values
8) In your opinion, what should be the aim of education? One thinker has said that democracy should be an ethical ideal and not merely a political arrangement. Also examine how education can contribute towards creating such a democracy. (200 Words)