Lok Sabha TV Insights: Skill Development – Challenges of Indian Youth
July 15 is celebrated as World Youth Skills Day and Prime Minister on this occasion is going to launch Skill India campaign. Skill development is perhaps most important link in chain of aspired economic vitality of India. India has as low as 4% workforce which is formally trained. In comparison 42% in US, 75% in Germany, 80% in Japan and 96% in South Korea are formally trained. There is obvious proportional link between skill of workforce and level of development in a nation.
Earlier skill development was overseen by Labor Ministry. Last year a separate Skill Development Department was created, which was finally converted to a full-fledged ministry i.e. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE). This was done because earlier there were about 70 odd initiatives under 20 different ministries and departments. This resulted in inefficiency and duplication of efforts. These all schemes will be taken over and converged.
In new system, MSDE signs Memorandum of Understanding with other ministries, departments or corporations. Under the agreement latter helps in setting up curriculum for specific training and provision of staff, knowhow etc. MSDE recently signed similar MOU with Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers and Steel Authority of India. It also inked a MOU with Railways Ministry, under which railways will provide space for Skill Development Centers at Railway Stations and trained manpower. This is a creative arrangement as railways have both things in surplus. Further, classes at railway stations are likely to work wonders with students from villages because of ease of travel.
Various arms under Ministry are –
- National Skill Development Agency (NSDA)
- National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)
- National Skill Development Fund (NSDF)
- 33 Sector Skill Councils (SSCs)
- 187 training partners
There is also demand for a legislation regarding ‘Right to Skill’, but for this consensus among states and adequate capacity in terms of infrastructure and trained teachers is prerequisite.
Last year ‘Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojna’ was announced with an outlay of Rs. 1500 Crore. This will be implemented by NSDC through its ‘training partners’ and benefit will be extended to 24 lakh students for this year. Students will be monetarily awarded on final assessment.
Focus under the PMKVY would be on improved curricula, better pedagogy and better trained instructors. Training would include soft skills, personal grooming, behavioral change for cleanliness, good work ethics. Sector Skill Councils and the State Governments would closely monitor skill training that will happen under PMKVY.
Special care will be taken to align skill training with emerging needs of the industry. This will require standardization of courses in which industrial interest groups such as CII, ASSOCHAM or FICCI will help.
Another major scheme announced was ‘Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kausalya Yojna’ under ‘Ministry of Rural Development’ which aims to fill gap between formal education and marketable skills of rural poor. Further, Ajeevika or National Rural Livelihood Mission is also there for rural India. It aims at ‘creating efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor enabling them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services’.
Currently there are three methods of skill training viz.
- Vocational Training in schools – Earlier it was available to class 11 and 12th students, but few years back level was lowered to class 8th This was owing to high dropout ratio and to incentivize students to complete class 8th at least.
- Industrial Training Institutions – These are both private and public. Here government has not expanded its network, whereas private institutions have shot up to 10000 in current times. These need more regulation and transparency.
- Onsite industrial training – to be provided by corporates. It is here that India lags behind. Indian corporates prefer to employ already skilled workers. On the other hand, in developed countries industrial culture mandates onsite skill development. To promote onsite training ‘apprentice act’ was amended last year.
It is private sector who holds the key to success of Skill India campaign. It is the co-beneficiary with people who get imparted with skill. As it is the end user of the skill, it will have to provide both financial and human resources for skill development. In past many attempts to jack up educational facilities failed just because of lack of trained teachers. We just hope that government has learned from past mistakes. Best thing in new initiatives is that they are universal as there are no eligibility criteria. Anyone, at any age, with any or no qualification can utilize the benefits.
Lok Sabha TV Insights Quiz
This Quiz is Based on Lok Sabha TV Insights Program Summary that we Post on this Website.