Insights Daily Current Events, 09 December 2014
Code of Conduct for Safe and Honourable Tourism
The Union Ministry of Tourism along with all stakeholders, including the Tourism Departments of all States and UTs, has already adopted the ‘Code of Conduct for Safe & Honourable Tourism’.
To encourage tourism activities to be undertaken with respect for basic rights like dignity, safety and freedom from exploitation of both tourists and local residents, in particular for women and children.
The specific objectives of the Code of Conduct for Safe and Honourable Tourism are to:
- Encourage tourism activities to be undertaken with respect for basic rights like dignity, safety and freedom from exploitation of both tourists and local residents, i.e. people and communities who may be impacted by tourism in some way.
- Aid the prevention of prostitution, sex tourism and forms of sexual exploitations like assaults and molestations in tourism to safeguard the safety of persons, in particular women and children.
- To enhance prevention of activities like forced or involuntary drug use, manipulated and incorrect information, cultural and social intolerance which could increase vulnerability to crime.
- The Code of Conduct is applicable to all the owners, suppliers, contractors, employees of travel tour sector including hotels, restaurants, lodges, guest houses, tour agents, entertainment establishments etc.
- In addition, it is applicable to service providers like event management organizations, entertainment providers, transport operators, tour guides and other services or agencies associated with tourism sector.
The Code of conduct for Safe and Honourable Tourism is not a legally binding instrument but a set of guidelines for tourism industry. It also sensitises the signatories regarding importance of information and training of personnel, public awareness and guest notification, regulated use of premises and official equipment, ethical business practices and marketing, implementation and monitoring.
First ‘green diesel’ powered flight
A Boeing aircraft has completed the world’s first flight using ‘green diesel’, a sustainable biofuel made from vegetable oils, waste cooking oil and animal fats.
- Sustainable green diesel is widely available and used in ground transportation. Boeing previously found that this fuel is chemically similar to HEFA (hydro-processed esters and fatty acids) aviation biofuel approved in 2011.
- Green diesel is chemically distinct and a different fuel product than “biodiesel,” which also is used in ground transportation.
Green Diesel/Renewable Diesel:
Renewable Diesel, often called “green diesel” or “second generation diesel,” refers to petrodiesel-like fuels derived from biological sources that are chemically not esters. Renewable diesel is chemically the same as petrodiesel, but it is made of recently living biomass.
- Unlike biodiesel, which is an ester and has different chemical properties from petroleum diesel, green diesel is composed of long-chain hydrocarbons, and can be mixed with petroleum diesel in any proportion for use as transportation fuel.
- Green diesel technology is frequently referred to as second-generation renewable diesel technology.
Petrodiesel is a product produced through the fractional distillation of crude oil. The petrodiesel molecule is a pure hydrocarbon, containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms and no oxygen.
Benefits of green diesel:
- Green diesel can be used in any diesel engine without modification. Other fractions can be used to run aircraft engines.
- Green diesel produced from BTL (biomass to liquids) or WTL (waste to liquids) doesn’t smell like fossil diesel. In fact it has a pleasant kind of soap smell.
- In cold climates green diesel has a great advantage over bio-diesel. It doesn’t cloud or gel until much lower temperatures (-40C) making it ideal for cool climates.
- Because it has exactly the same chemical properties as fossil based diesel, it can be blended with regular diesel, stored and distributed using the same infrastructure.
- Although chemically identical to fossil diesel, it has a higher cetane rating and on a gallon for gallon basis contains 22% more energy.
- On a lifecycle basis, sustainably produced green diesel reduces carbon emissions by 50 to 90 per cent compared to fossil fuel.
Green diesel offers a tremendous opportunity to make sustainable aviation biofuel more available and more affordable for customers.
With production capacity of 800 million gallons (three billion litres) in the U.S., Europe and Asia, green diesel could rapidly supply as much as one per cent of global jet fuel demand.
Sources: The Hindu, http://abillionbarrels.blogspot.in/, biofuel.org.uk.