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Swavlamban Abhiyaan – new pro-poor initiatives of the Gujarat Government

Swavlamban Abhiyaan: a set of 11 pro-poor initiatives for the benefit of Shram Yogis, especially women and youth, by the Gujarat government.

These 11 schemes focus on empowering women, labourers, cattle-rearers, youth and farmers through various initiatives, assistance, relief, benefits and opportunities.

This was launched on September 17, which is observed as Vishwakarma puja diwas across the country. This day is revered by all the Shram yogis i,e. people who live through hard work.

Sources: PIB.

United States-India Trade policy Forum

The Trade Policy Forum is a key element of the strategic dialogue, serving to advance the two countries’ efforts to expand the economic ties.

Bilateral trades have doubled and Indian companies have grown significantly since the inception of The Trade Policy Forum in 2005. This further helps the two countries realize their full potential for even greater trade and investment.

The Forum primarily aims at providing an environment, with the global rules-based trading system that supports expanding trade and investment and helps to strengthen the commercial ties between the U.S. and Indian businesses.

This shared vision is achieved by developing and implementing trade policies through transparent procedures that comply with international obligations, fostering an environment conducive to technological collaboration and innovation, and by promoting inclusive economic growth and job creation in the United states and India.


Sources: PIB.

Hornbill festival

It is celebrated every year in the first week of December. It is organized by the government of Nagaland to encourage inter-tribal interaction and to promote cultural heritage of Nagaland.

Nagaland is known as the land of festivals. Most of their festivals revolve around the agriculture as more than 60% population of the Nagaland depends on Agriculture.

The Festival is named after the hornbill, the globally respected bird and which is displayed in folklore in most of the state’s tribes.

The program unites all the people of Nagaland and showcases different traditional arts which include paintings, sculptures and wood carvings.

What is Naga Heritage Village?

It is established and commissioned by the state government of Nagaland.

Its objective is to protect and preserve all ethnic cultural heritages by establishing a common management approach and comprehensive data base for perpetuation and maintenance for promotion of tourism. It also aims to uphold and sustain the distinct identity of dialects, customs and traditions of all the ethnic tribes of Nagaland.

It is situated about 10 km from the state capital-Kohima.

It serves as the platform where some important festivals, like Hornbill festival, are celebrated.



Rajasthan first state to ratify Judicial Appointments Bill

The national judicial appointments commission bill and 121 constitutional amendment bill were passed by Rajasthan.

The bill seeks to replace the existing Collegium system for selecting the judges with The National Judicial Appointments Commission.

This bill needs to be passed by at least 15 states before it is sent to the presidential assent and brought into effect.

This type of amendment falls under the second category of amendments to the Indian constitution under article 368 which requires ratification by half of the states.

Sources: the hindu.


Operation Megh Rahat

It is a humanitarian assistance program launched by the Army (in close coordination with the aviation authorities) in the northern command, in response to the recent floods in J&K to rescue the people.

The Indian Army has also launched ‘Mission Sahayta’ in Kashmir to rescue the people from critically affected areas.

Sources: PIB.


Yudh Abhyas

It is the combined Indo-US military training exercise.

Sources: PIB.


Is there any difference in the blood between humans and animals?

Human and other animal blood is different in many aspects. Human blood is always warm blooded whereas cold blooded in other animals except in mammals and birds.

  • The percentage of the cell types in human and other animals are different between each other. In humans blood vascular system is closed , whereas some animals have open blood vascular system.
  • The efficiency of human blood function is very high than other animals. In active, larger animals with high metabolic activities they have developed metal containing respiratory pigments in their blood. Haemoglobin is found in all vertebrates except a few fishes. Among the invertebrates it is found in many annelids, in a few molluscs and arthropods, in several sea cucumbers, in flatworms, nematodes etc.
  • In vertebrates, the haemoglobin is contained in the red blood cells whereas in invertebrates it is dissolved in blood plasma. Chlorocruorin , another respiratoy pigment is green in colour found in the plasma of certain tube dwelling polycheate worms.
  • Haemocyanin is a copper containing pigment found in several invertebrates such as molluscs and arthropods. Human blood is composed of three cell types namely RBC, WBC and platelets. In humans the RBC is enucleated whereas RBC of birds and many animals are nucleated. Both RBC’s and haemoglobin are absent in crocodiles. Different blood types based on presence or absence of blood groups such as A, B, O, and Rhesus factor ( Rh) are present in mammals but not in lower animals.


    Sources: the Hindu