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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge – Day – 35

QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY-35 (24/09/2013)

 1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

 2)“The conditions of the urban poor are  more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

3) Mandate and structure of OPCW (150 words)


  1. 4 Votes

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    Ans- India is a democracy. The government is of the people, by the people, for the people. This establishes the importance of elections in India. These elections, whether for MP, MLA or the municipality or even the panchayat elections are governed by the mass psychology. The major factors that affect voting behavior in India can be enumerated as,

    First is Casteism. This factor is more prevalent in rural & backward regions. Villages are mostly classified on the basis of caste & this leads to sectionalism. Backward caste people feel that only a people from their caste will help in their upliftment. Demand for reservations also acts as a catalyst.

    Second is Religion. People think that a representative from other religion will not be able to understand their problem. A sense of alien is felt for people of other religion.

    Third is Favors during election campaign. It can be monetary or otherwise. Distribution of sarees, cycles, liquor etc during campaigning is a tactic used by parties to materialise this factor. In momentary happiness of these favors, people tend to vote in favour of the candidate.

    Fourth is Previous works done . The more developmental works done, the more chances of getting votes.

    Fifth is Political party. Many times people get stereotyped with the parties tending to think that all the members of the party work the same way & in same direction. Looking at the works done by the party at other places, people form the stereotypes.

    Last is Election manifesto. Manifesto consisting of huge promises written in an attractive way makes the people think that the candidate will do all that he is promising.

    These factors have guided voting behavior in India for a long time but the impact of each factor varies with place & time. As literacy & awareness is increasing in people, so is the effect of these factors.

    • 1 Vote

      Insights please review my answer.

      • Rate This Response!

        Good answer. Some points are missing as pointed out below by Shubhangi, but structure is good. So is the flow. Introduction could have been better.

    • Hri
      Rate This Response!

      You have made a good point of manifesto and political parties which I missed…. Please also review my answer and give type comments

      • Shubhangi
        2 Votes

        Educational level(voter and candidate), economic status of voters, role of mass media, social networks and internet missing.

        Anyways good attempt but i guess u exceeded word limit.

  2. Siddhesh Singh
    3 Votes

    2)“The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.


    It is indeed true that life in urban area is very deplorable mainly due to rural to urban migration. People migrate from their homes to cities and metropolitans with better prospects of future or as seasonal labour.

    But since housing facilities is not available here, they form houses of tin, plastic,trapulin sheets etc. called Slums which has become a problem of not just India but all developing countries. Slums have sub standard house, poor amenities, no proper drainage and sewerage. All these poor unhygenic condition are a welcome sign for malaria, dengue etc.

    One solution is urban housing which itself is surrounded by its own peculiar problems like paucity of land, shortage of finance and high cost of building materials beside the slum dwellers are not used to in living building which is also a hurdle.

    One solution is proper town planning as our towns till now have been haphazardly built and have been unplanned. The new town should be planned in keeping the this thing on mind that is it an industrial town which will attract rural people and if it is then proper planning needs to be done as to where these workers will live.

    To conclude it must be said that now that we have achieved food sufficiency we should focus on providing shelter to people before a large part of town becomes slum and then a political tool after which it will be impossible to get rid off them.

    • Siddhesh Singh
      2 Votes

      Please do provide feedback

    • Firefly
      Rate This Response!

      Yes the question was about life being tougher for urban poor compared to rural. Should have detailed cultural, economic and social factors that make the experience worse off for urban poor. Solutions if you had to give, should have been in one sentence alone.

      • Siddhesh Singh
        Rate This Response!

        thanx a ton to both of u guess i knw nw why reading question clearly is why so essential

        • karav
          Rate This Response!

          you may have included that mostly social inventions scheme only for rural poors ,depriving their urban counterparts ,so they have to fetch their level by themselves .

    • Sioux
      Rate This Response!

      Poverty = HDI = per capita + education + health.

      Per capita + education of urban poor better than rural.

      Health = worse in urban than rural + economic disparity between rich and poor more as compared to rural.

      That should do.

  3. RV
    Rate This Response!

    3) Mandate and structure of OPCW (150 words)

    Chemical weapons are catastrophic both biologically and ecologically and Chemical Weapons Convention aims to prevent such a holocaust. OPCW headquarted at Hague,Netherlands administers the Chemical Weapons Conventions .

    Demilitarisation deals with destruction of chemical stockpile of nations through specialised treatment facilities. The chemicals are specified into three categories depending upon their usage directly or indirectly for the making of chemical weapons. The other tasks included monitoring non-proliferation of chemical weapons , inspection of military and civilian sites for alleged use , working in tandem with the National Authorities and enabling international cooperation and assistance for chemical weapons removal through contributions from member states.

    The Prinicipal Body is the Conference of Parties which meets yearly and appoints an Executive Council for a period of 2 years on the bais of equal voting rights. The Executive council consisiting of a Technical Secretariat is mandated with the task of overseeing the budget and effective compliance with the Convention.

    Syria is not a member to the Convention and with the recent allegations of Chemical Weapons use there is a global demand for inspection of the region .

    • Sioux
      Rate This Response!

      No need 3rd paragraph. In answers of technical nature, points form should do. 2nd is good enough + 4th is good.

  4. RV
    7 Votes

    Hidden behind the broad roads , speeding cars , towering buildings and glistening Urban lifestyle is the deplorable condition of the urban poor. Uprooted from their native culture for want of livelihood their is no end to their ordeal in the cities where they migrated ostensibly for a better lifestyle. Moreover the urban poor comprises of not only the migrated workers but also the trafficked children an women , old people reduced to life of mendicancy and other vulnerable groups.

    No doubt that urban areas offer better medical , educational facilities something that is of primacy to all . However the cost at which they come often makes them unaffordable for the languishing poor . Their children are as stunted as those of rural places and as per a UNICEF report rural household are much better than Urban .

    The urban poor dwelling in slums , with no ration card , or political rights in the migrated state where they are often assaulted lives a life of invisibility. Plagued by the vector borne diseases , rising pollution leading to asthma other respiratory problems and hazardous conditions due to flouting of labour laws they are exploited at all the zones. The rural poor atleast stays in a more pristine environment and has the source of subsistence farming . Majority of the government policies be it National Rural Health Mission , MNREGA or mid day meal all have their focus on the villages and hence have helped in improvement in the socio-economic conditions .
    Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles which form benchmark for these programs cover all the people irrespective of rural or urban and hence a need is felt today to develop the villages however not at the cost of neglecting the urban poor .

    • Anjali
      Rate This Response!

      RV good answer.

    • Shubhangi
      1 Vote

      Very good answer. Could have mentioned recent govt attempts like national urban health misssion, jnnurm || etc.

      i think :” basic problem of rural poor is to improve their living condition while for urban poor the fundamental problem is to ensure their survival. “

      • RV
        Rate This Response!

        Thanx Anjali and Shubhangi ! Yes i missed on the govt programmes for urban thanx for pointing that out

  5. Maaduri
    1 Vote

    2) “The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

    The conditions of poor have not improved much as promised during independence. The standard of rural poor has progressed only in papers without actual improvement as they just urbanised in search of employment, education and better living standards. The state of urban poor is even worse than rural as they suffer problems ranging from employment, health, environmental and social issues.

    The employment objective of urbanisation is not met for unskilled labor. They suffer from large competition, low wages, poor working conditions and no job security. Hence the problem of unemployment and poverty is more prevalent than in rural areas, where agriculture and cattle rearing are the main forms of employment. The urban poor live in outskirts with slum dwellings and they are thickly populated because of high cost of living whereas in rural areas people have their own homes and good access to natural resources which urban people lack.

    Health and environmental problems are widespread in urban areas with increased pollution, poor sanitation, spread of epidemics and poor mental health as they live with zero self respect and confidence. There is no social protection mechanism for them and they have to go through poor education, water supply and electricity. All these problems led to increased social evils such as child labor, prostitution, beggary, alcoholism and drug addiction.

    Government schemes are also targeted to improve the conditions of poor or they reach rural poor efficiently than urban poor. Taking into consideration all the issues faced by urban and rural poor it can be easily concluded that the conditions of rural poor is ameliorating where as urban poor it’s aggravating and need more reforms.

  6. RV
    2 Votes

    Free and Fair elections forms the mainstay of any democracy .The voting patterns involved in the process are very complex and interwined with socio-cultural and politico-economic conditions of the voters.

    Over the period of time Caste has emerged as one of the strongest determiners of the voting pattern ostensibly on the belief that the elected representative would be much more adept with their conditions and suitably address them. Moreover this has led to the growing trends of regionalism where the regional parties are gaining dominance over the national parties as is evident from the many chips holding the mainframe at the Centre and subsequent political immobilization.

    Religion is slowly being turned for political propaganda and myopic views of politicians have led to lavish promises. Language and ethnicity is also gaining prominence as evident from the multiple chip away units from major parties supporting the various groups asking for new states in a bid to maintain their stronghold in the regions.

    Ambedkar had warned against the idolization of politics. However in recent times parties have been split and electoral wars fought on the basis of charismatic leaders proclaiming to be the messiahs of the poor /development /anti-terrorism etc. Political ideology as determined by this leader and catchy lines have marked the elections in recent times around which the election campaign is built and hence voted upon.
    Illiteracy , lack of awareness , lack of concern and feeling what difference does “one” vote make has seen a paradigm shift where MP’s spell out the amount of crores they spent for elections rather than their achievements and promises made just remain empty words.

  7. vipul
    Rate This Response!

    What are the main determinants of voting behavior in India?

    India is the largest democracy of the world.Free & fair elections are the foundation stone for a strong & sustainable democracy.Founding fathers of India supported the Idea of universal adult franchise.People above age of 18 were given the right to vote and choose their representatives.Considering the level of illiteracy and poverty in India at the time of independence,it was a bold decisions at that juncture.

    India is a diverse nation and so are the factors influencing the voting behavior.Some of the critical determinants of voting behavior are as under


    Caste is considered as the engine of Indian democracy.People are more inclined to vote for the candidates belonging to their own caste.Even political parties select their candidates based on caste equation in a particular constituency. Parties in power do announce concessions & benefits to hold their trust in a particular community.Many of the state parties owe their origin & existence to a particular caste.


    India is a secular country.Nearly 80 % the Indian population belongs to Hindu religion and next most represented religion is Islam. In past,some of political parties rose to power on their support for religious propaganda.Over a period of time,voters have shown maturity in not getting influenced by religious favors thrown by political parties.Due to the natural reasons,voters in minority population are inclined to favor their own community people as a protector of their identity & rights.


    Regionalism plays a very critical role in national as well as state politics.Many political parties in state align their agenda to fulfill the aspiration of people belonging to a certain region,sometimes at the cost of national integrity.Especially In State politics,people do vote for parties promising to fulfill their aspiration like separation of region,promoting regional interest.Regional inequality and inter state migration have further enhanced the significance of region in voter’s preferences..


    More than 30 % of India’s population is below poverty line. Poor in India are more active in utilizing their rights to vote than the well to do section of society.Political parties often put pro-poor policies in their agenda to woo them.Ruling parties implement several development schemes in sector like road,electricity,food,water etc, to retain their hold on this segment.Poverty has direct relationship with illiteracy.Section of intellectuals blame poor for not using their voting right judiciously but poor have prove them incorrect again & again.

    Charisma of leaders

    Voters have selected individuals like sports/movie stars,descendants of local king etc. due to their charismatic personalities.India has culture of making hero-worshiping .At times,candidates have been elected several times despite being an under performer as an public servant.

    External factors

    Voter decisions are bound to be influenced by the current social,political & economic situation of the country as a whole.Such factors mostly affect the parties in power.

  8. Hri
    Rate This Response!

    Main determinants of voting behaviour in India

    Ans:voting plays am important role in strengthening the democratic institutions in a country. It is through voting that true democracy can be sustained for a long run. However the voting behaviour in India have been influenced by various rational as well as irrational factors. In fact it had progressively evolved over the years.
    The voting in India is mostly said to be based on social factors like caste, religion and class based politics. People tend to prefer political parties that contest for the betterment of only their caste, religion or class; sidetracking the interest of majority.
    The regional considerations are also said to weight the voting pattern of the people which is clearly seen in the rise of regional political parties. These parties tend to play the card of Regional neglect or regional backwardness to owe the voters. Infact they tend to give preference to narrow regional considerations more than the national importance.
    However the increasing educational and political awareness among the people is now managing them look towards voting more from a development perspective. People are now giving more importance to administrative factors like corruption free administration, employment generation, poverty reduction, provisions of basic civic amenities while casting their votes.
    This we can see that voting behaviour in India has undergone a drastic change to a great extend, over the years, from narrow social considerations to modern development considerations.

  9. vipul
    Rate This Response!

    “The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

    In Last 3 decades,pull of rapid industrialization & push of over crowded agri sector has led to unprecedented migration from rural to Urban areas in India. Growth of urbanization in India is being accompanied by rise in number of urban poor & urban slums.Urban poor constitute 25 % of total poor in the country and nearly 1/3rd of cities population.Conditions of urban poor is much worse then their rural counterparts in certain aspects as discussed under:

    Identity crisis :.Nearly 1/3 rd of population in big cities (Delhi,Mumbai,Kolkata,Chennai) resides in the city.Most of time ,poor in slums lacks legal identity & addresses and thus are deprived of the social services provided by the governments.

    Health:In health parameters ,urban poor are worse off than the rural poor. Poor environment condition in slums have made urban poor more vulnerable to lung diseases & vector borne diseases. Scheme of Environmental improvement of urban slums (EIUS) was launched in response to this problem. As majority of expenditure on health is out of pocket,rising cost in urban private healthcare sector has made heath-care facilities out of urban poor’s reach.All these factors have compelled the government to launch the National urban health mission.

    Poor social security Cover & high cost of living
    Most of urban poor work as contractual laborer or in un-organised sector where social security is not taken care of.Much of their social security comes from a piece of land back home or through families that the have in their native place.High cost of living leads to nearly zero savings.Migrants in urban poor are compelled to stay away from their families as maintaining a family is almost un affordable in cities.

    Uncertainty of Settlement:
    Slums are considered as illegal settlements.Most of the slums are located on public spaces and Urban local bodies exert their control & power to evacuate the urban poor from the property ignoring issue of their livelihood.

    • RV
      Rate This Response!

      Hi i think you repeated the social security and identity points ! and moreover i think you should just use the paragraphs with each new one stating a new point instead of explicitly mentioning it before the para ! just a suggestion :)

  10. Shubhangi
    5 Votes

    What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    Voting is most important form of participation in democracy for an ordinary citizen. Due to immense diversity at economic, cultural and social level, voting behaviour varies across the country.

    Voting behaviour has two elements. First, Political participation i.e. to vote or not. Second, Political preference i.e. why to select a cand idate over other. Various factors i.e. determinant affect voting behaviour. First, Economic Determinants: these include economic status of voter, flow of money in election as cash, gift and liquor. Second, Social determinants: these comprises of caste, religion, region and linguistic aspects of voter and candidate. Level of education and closeness of governance to people are also important. Usually it is seen that voter’s turn out is high during panchayat or municipal election than national or state elections. Third, Technological Determinants: these include mass media such as newspaper, TV and radio. Now a days, internet and social networking is also playing important role in voting behaviour. However, penetration of technology usually depends on economic and educational level of voters.

    Due to variations in above factors between rural-urban areas and between male-female, voting preference of these groups vary.

    India constitution and laws provide ample safeguards to prevent undue influence on voting behaviour. ECI, Universal adult franchise, People’s representation act and code of conduct are such safeguards. Recently, high court in UP has banned caste based rallies.

    Despite above voting behaviour in India is still mainly determined by caste, money and religion. Structural reforms in future will give way for development oriented determinants as seen in western countries.

    • Shubhangi
      Rate This Response!

      @ Insights: please review.

      @All: plz review.

      • Maaduri
        Rate This Response!

        Good answer. covered almost all aspects. structure is good. Bringing in technological determinant and highlighting close participation for local governance is also good.

        Few more points that could have been added are election manifesto and ideology.

      • RV
        Rate This Response!

        Covered all points + you brought out the dual thing of participation and preference distinctly which was good !

    • sapana
      Rate This Response!

      Good to see that you mentioned things like- influence on voting behaviour, ECI, PRA and others. This makes your answer complete. Introduction is crisp. Short sentences gives beauty to your answer. Very good attempt.

    • Vijay Pateriya
      Rate This Response!

      great answer simple & solid every aspect coverd within wordlimits. highly impressive

    • Vijay Pateriya
      Rate This Response!

      shubhangi your answer looks a model answer to me please check my answer.

  11. sai
    2 Votes

    In a diverse country like India voting behavior of people in elections is a complex phenomenon. When people carry different identities like caste, race, class, religion etc the voting behavior is influenced by a combination of these factors.

    caste has been the most important factor in determining the voting behavior. It also acted as a divisive force. Presence of parties like BSP on the caste lines proves its significance.

    Given the history of communalisation religion is another important factor. BJP at national level and many regional parties like MIM are formed on religious lines

    Regionalism is becoming increasingly important since 1990s. Unequal development, under development and increasing aspirations are fomenting regionalism and hence it is becoming a factor

    Though parties like CPI are formed on ideology basis but at national level ideology is not a big factor. But on a regional level West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura are the strongholds of CPI.

    developmental issues like poverty, unemployment also play important role. The election of UPA for the second time is attributed to the MNREGA. Election slogans like ‘kapada-roti-makaan’, ‘bijli-sadak-paani’ highlight its importance

    Unlike in Britain class was not a major factor in india. Majorly because india is still a agrarian society and class formation was not so clear

    Similarly race is also not a factor except in north-east which consists of multi-ethnic groups.

    certain incidents like imposing emergency in 1970, which led to the fall of congress, will also play their role.

  12. GUDDU
    2 Votes

    Question Date :24th August
    Q 2.The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts

    A poor person can be defined as that who is not able to afford the basic amenities for a dignified living , the basic amenities are regionally and culturally different, Officially a person is considered poor if one is not even able to get subsistence level food nutrition.

    The distribution of poor as per the definition is highly stark in the country with the rural sector accounting for about 70-80% of the entire poor people however if one considers poverty in qualitative terms also i.e. multidimensional , one can conclude that the urban counterparts are worse off than the rural ones.

    Main reasons for poverty are lack of proper employment and lack of adequate capital to start an enterprise. The rural population has a relatively higher amount of homogeneity thus the people don’t have to compete much for the available capital amongst them while in the urban spaces the poor are overlooked by the institutions for the want to cater to affluent customers.
    For the vote bank politics also the focus of the various welfare schemes have a rural tilt, The rural poor mostly occupied in the agricultural sector gets far more state protection than the urban counterparts. Other dimension of poverty like congested living spaces , filthy surrounding, unhygienic sanitary levels, low health coverage etc are trademark of lifestyle of urban poor.
    Thus in quantity the rural poverty is higher however in quality the urban side fares much worse than the rural ones.

  13. Ankit
    1 Vote

    3) Mandate and structure of OPCW(150)

    Organization for prohibition of chemical weapons has the main mandate of implementation of the chemical convention of 1997. The body has a structure of technical secretariat for the implementation of the convention , which has the main provisions of destruction of the existing stockpiles of chemical weapons , prevent further proliferation and corollary manufacture of weapons and also to strengthen the international framework for limiting the use of chemistry to peaceful use.
    The technical secretariat is also responsible for day to day administration while policy decisions in relevance of the changing times are taken by executive council and conference of parties which also acts as the platform to resolve any ambiguity in the interpretation of the convention’s provisions.
    The organization comes into increased prominence with use of chemical weapons in the ongoing conflict in Syria and Syria not being a member of the convention which underscores the need for more rigorous effort on the side of the international community.

  14. sapana
    1 Vote

    2)“The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

    More than a third of India’s population is below the poverty line. Rural India is better able to disguise and handle poverty; urban India fail to do so. Its poverty is growing which eludes them in the cities. The poverty directly affects the quality of life, particularly in the areas of nutrition, health and education.

    Pavement dwellers and slum dwellers are at great disadvantage. Overcrowded slums with lack of ventilation, light and sanitary facilities are essentially menace to the health and morals of the community. There are many simple, hard working men and women living in the slums, but they also have extortionist dons, bootleggers, and smugglers. They have dens of vice and flesh trade.

    There are few civic amenities for the poor. Water taps works only for an hour or so. There are few lavatories; most people have to ease themselves in the open. The roads and lanes are slushy. Primary Health Care Centres are not adequately staffed and stocked. The schools, in uninviting settings, impart only nominal instructions. Public transport is expensive and crowded. Cinemas and video parlors provide some entertainment, to be supplemented by drinks, drugs and gambling.

    Most pavement and slum dwellers find themselves detached from their tradition moorings, ,living in cultural void. Many of them live away from there families, unable to adapt to the urban ethos.

    The search for greener pasture and better employment opportunities will continue to attract village population. What is required is adequate measure of planning and efficient management to tackle these problems. Planned communities for migrants with adequate housing facilities, improves water and power supply, improved sanitary conditions, improved health infrastructure and better civic amenities will go a long way to ensure a humane living condition for urban poor.

  15. Anjali
    3 Votes

    Voting behaviour in India is determined by, short term influences at the time of election and long term consideration on voters part. Age, sex, education, rural urban placement, poverty and literacy play a definite role in shaping voters behaviour.

    Short term influences are election specific such as inflation, unemployment, state of economy, local conditions such as roads, water and electricity law and order, corruption at the time of election.Long term determinants are social factor, caste, religion, leaders personality, development.

    Charismatic leaders personality play a important role in election, like during 1971 and 1999 elections. Specific events before elections too shapes voters behavior. Such as emergency, war, or major achievement during that parties government.In India political factor also contribute in shaping voters behavior like, Gandhi family, Sangh Pariwar, the dalit, Bahujan Samaj.

    Economic considerations are important factor during the time of elections as both rich and poor are affected by it. Price rise of essential commodities immediately influences voters thinking.
    Freebies promised at the election time also play minor role.

    Propertied and labour classes, industrialists and peasants bussinessmen and professitionals prefer parties on class lines.

    In India voters behaviour is determined by many factors, where immediate influences are coupled with long term interests.

  16. Sabya
    3 Votes

    Mandate and structure of OPCW
    The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an international organisation that was established in 1997 by the countries that joined the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)
    Mandate :- The OPCW is the enforcing branch of CWC charged with the implementation of the conventions — ‘iradication of Chemical weapons after ratification, prevention of further re-imergence of any chemical weapon, assisting members against chemical threats and fostering cooperation to promote safe research in Chemistry.’
    Structure :- The OPCW consists of the ‘Conference of the States Parties’ as principal organ of the Organisation and the ‘Executive Council’ designed primarily to determine questions of policy and resolve matters arising between the States Parties on technical issues or on interpretations of the Convention as well as the ‘Technical Secretariat’ charged with assisting the Conference of the States Parties and the Executive Council with the “verification measures” provided for in the Chemical Weapons Convention. Three subsidiary bodies are established to aid the three main organs of the OPCW in their work : the Scientific Advisory Board, the Advisory Body on Administrative and Financial Issues, and the Confidentiality Commission.

    • Sabya
      Rate This Response!

      Please provide a review everyone !
      @ INSIGHTS please provide a response Sir…
      Thank you

      • Rate This Response!


        All facts are right. But one line introduction and conclusion is good for 150 word answers. I asked this because of Syrian situation, may be a mention would have been good.

  17. Ram Sharma
    1 Vote

    1. Comment on the performance of India recently as a non-permanent member in the UNSC

    India was elected for the seventh time as the non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council in 2011. Coming after a gap of 18 years, India’s election was seen as a step in the direction of reforming the Security Council. Its rise was also an appreciation of India’s arrival at the world stage. In that sense, India failed in getting any long-term commitment by the P5, however, there do remain certain notable contributions.

    During its presidency, India highlighted the need for reforming the Security Council. As an example, almost 2/3rd of the agenda of UNSC and 3/4th of the time of the UNSC was spent on African countries. And, therefore, argued that permanent and non-permanent members should be expanded.

    It criticised the western world for its highhandedness of conflict areas. India asked the developed world to ensure that dialogue remains the first step towards reconciliation and use of force was the last resort. However, India came under criticism for its inconsistency on the Syrian issue. It highlighted the willingness of the developed countries to supply arms and support to dislodge certain regimes, but remained non-committed to the UN Peacekeeping Force.

    The presidency of India was in line with its stated position of maintaining independent foreign policy. The country did not align itself with any particular group within the P5. At the same time, India used the platform to articulate its foreign policy and legitimise its right for a permanent membership of a reformed UNSC.

  18. Vicky…
    1 Vote

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?
    There are various determinants of voting behaviour in India. Some of them have been traditional and some have emerged as the society has progressed. The traditional factors include religion, caste, class, gender etc. Whereas the modern factors are development, change, foreign policy inclusiveness, money, muscle-power.

    The polity of India is a very unique one and parties often to grapple maximum seats create some factors which lead to changed voting behaviour. Some new promises are made in the manifestoes which claim to benefit the people. Factors like anti-incumbency also leads to voting against the ruling party. The charismatic personalities of some leader also attract huge votes due some of their qualities, like Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee etc .

    Sometimes the voting behaviour get influenced by certain recent incidents, taken place or taking place in and around the nation. Other factors include social , economic , educational background of the voters also. Political consciousness is lacking in some, thus affecting the voting reasons.

    The period before 1980’s was mostly mass based, clean polity. The sense of freedom attainment was still fresh and almost largely leaders had a vision, honesty and integrity. But since then features such as communalism, regionalism, casteism, mandalisation, criminalisation , corruption etc have creeped inside the system and hugely affected the voting behaviour.

    But lately we have seen more radical development issues like inclusivity , human-based, mass-based, sustainability have come and political consciousness have enlarged significantly. Thus we can conclude that Indian polity is a multi-determinant system and different factors play at different places and time.

    • Vicky…
      1 Vote

      INSIGHTS please review. please check the intro and conclusion part .

      • Rate This Response!

        Your introduction is excellent. But the second paragraph is not in continuity with the introduction. You would have explained ‘traditional factors’ there which would have given continuity.

        Rest of the answer is good. More point are needed. Also I don’t think it is a good idea to mention names of politicians in the answer.

        Conclusion is also good. It is apt.

  19. Vicky…
    1 Vote

    2)“The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.
    Answer :
    Although poverty itself is a curse whether it is in urban or rural areas. But it has been lately observed from various surveys and analysis that urban poor are more deplorable than their rural counterparts. This picture comes as contradiction to the general notion that urban area people have better quality of life than rural areas. However this does not follow in the case of poor.

    The urban poor perform poorly ,on majority of the parameters studied ,as compared to rural poor. Whether it may be infant mortality, illiteracy , child marriage, healthcare etc or other factors like malnourishment , hunger, safe provision for delivery, defecation etc , condition of urban poor is worse than the latter . Even on the factors like declining sex ratio, poor access to water, child labour , high cases of anaemia in children and women etc , rural poor fare better than urban counterparts.

    Although the facilities available in cities and towns are more and better than rural areas , still it has been seen that access to them is negligible for the poor. They continue to live on their subsistence level in the slums. Above all the prices and costs are more in cities for almost every commodity, thus urban poor even if getting more pay is not able to sustain itself. The quality of air, contaminated water of industries, drains etc feed these people leading to greater health hazards for them than in rural areas.

    Thus it can be seen although urban poor are increasing consistently, but there condition is no better than the rural poor.

  20. Manish
    Rate This Response!

    Q) What are the main determinants of the voting behavior in India?
    A) Voting rights is among the main pillars of democracy. Understanding who participates and why is important to determine who has a voice in politics. In the diverse country like India Individuals/groups/Society/city/state/region might have different voting behavior which could be bucketed in following factors:
    -Representation of group/Interest: India represents diversity of religion, language, caste etc. which motivates citizens to have their representation in policy making to protect/develop their rights. Similarly economic differences among people necessitates the need of fair representation; thus influencing the voting behavior of citizens.
    – Civic and political involvement: The active involvements of people in civil society issues or political issues encourage citizens to vote. The active involvement could be both pro-government and anti-government, but it reflects the acceptance of democratic system.
    – Trust in government institution: By and large, if there is no trust in government institutions, citizens tend to avoid their participation. The case of Maoists affected area is clear evidence of that.
    -Tolerance level: Though it’s a resultant of above mention points but in extreme cases, level of tolerance determines the active or passive or disruptive voting behavior.
    -Other factors like education, gender, age, quota etc. are factors which further impact the degree of voting behavior.
    Thus, in a democracy like India, to ensure the smooth functioning and legitimacy of electoral process, it is essential to observe the voting behavior of India. The role of government and its institutions is critical to ensure inclusive involvement of citizens in electoral process.

    • Manish
      Rate This Response!

      Please review. Though after reading the answers of others I think I missed point of charismatic leadership. Also in the conclusion I missed ECI, code of conduct etc.

      • Rate This Response!

        Introduction is not good. It is confusing actually (second line). Many points are there, but you should arrange them well (for eg. this point -’Similarly economic differences among people necessitates the need of fair representation; thus influencing the voting behavior of citizens.’ under ‘ representation of group/interest – should have been a whole different point)

        Conclusion is good.

  21. tushar
    3 Votes

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    India is the largest functioning democracy in the world and every electoral process is largest in the world because of the sheer number. Elections are one of the crucial aspects this democracy. The voting behaviour in India has not been static and has shown variations across regions and across time.

    During the first two general elections, voting behaviour was influenced by the charismatic leadership. Most of the leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar patel, etc. played important part in the national movemement and thus attracted huge support among masses.

    Another factor affecting voting behavior is Caste and community. Indian society is highly plural and divided into multiple communities and sects. People often identify with the leaders of their group and this affects voting behavior.

    With the rise of regional parties and emergence of regional aspirations, regionalism has also become one of the important factors during elections. This is well supported by the growth of strong regional parties in states like Andhra Pradesh, tamil nadu, Orissa etc.

    In addition, sympathy with the certain leaders is also one of the important reasons affecting voting behaviour. The general elections of 1984 and 1991 were won by riding on the sympathy votes.

    In addition, with the growing literacy and rising middle class, issues such as
    developent, high inflation, misgovernance, corruption etc have become very important factors in determining the electoral results.

    Thus the voting behavior in India has been dynamic and very complex. There are a mix of factors which operate and decide the voting behavior. Also, these factors are not uniform throughout the country, but vary accordingly.

  22. Shubhangi
    1 Vote

    @ Insights and @all ……..Please help me out with this question.

    “Give your views on whether RBI’s mandate should be confined to price stability or it needs to pursue other objectives as well?”

    • ecebloggers
      1 Vote

      Please find below some pertinent points from a recent speech by RBI guv Subba Rao which addressed your question

      The Reserve Bank’s monetary policy aims at three objectives – price stability, growth and financial stability. To contend that the Reserve Bank is obsessed with inflation, oblivious to growth concerns, I think, is both inaccurate and unfair. The Reserve Bank is committed to inflation control, not because it does not care for growth, but because it does care for growth.

      an environment of low and stable inflation is a necessary precondition for sustainable growth.

      monetary policy is also about reducing hunger and malnutrition, putting children in school, creating jobs, building roads and bridges and increasing the productivity of our farms and firms

  23. tushar
    1 Vote

    2)“The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

    Poverty is one of the major social challenges facing the country. Though, it affects people living in rural areas and urban areas alike, the situation of poor in the urban areas is particularly bad. Several reasons are responsible for this.

    Urban areas have in the recent years seen a lot of growth in terms of population and density. This has resulted in lack of adequate facilities
    like sanitation, water, drainage etc. These conditions affect the poor the most as they rely solely on the governments’ efforts and can’t afford private facilities.

    Growth of large urban centres has seen a great increase in the prices of land and housing has become extremely expensive in these areas. Poor people who are unable to afford houses in a good locality are forced to live in slum areas. The slums like Dharavi in Mumbai and slums in outskirts of Delhi lack basic facilities and people are forced to live in confined places.

    In addition, most of the slum dwellers are mostly migrant who come for better future and livelihood prospects. These people often don’t have the required documents for opening bank accounts, getting ration cards etc. and are most often excluded from the government entitlements.

    Also, unlike the rural areas, the social welfare schemes in the areas of health, maternity welfare, employment are lesser in the urban areas and their penetration is low.

    Of late the government has realized the plight of urban poor and started a lot of welfare schemes for them. Basic Services for Urban Poor (BSUP), Swarnajayanti Shehari Swarjogar yojana, Rajiv Awas Yojana etc are few steps in that direction.

    (269 words)

    Insights, please review.

    • Rate This Response!

      Again no comments. Answer is lucid and to the point with good introduction and conclusion.

    • Nikku
      Rate This Response!

      @Insights, I had a doubt regarding this question. Almost everybody has answered with a view that urban poor are worse off than rural poor. Since the question has the directive “Give your views”, can we take an opposite stand to the statement made in the question. Statistics seem to point that the poverty is worse off in rural areas (in terms of the human indexes), and it is the lack of opportunity in rural areas that is acting as a push factor for urban migration.

      • Rate This Response!


        That’s what most of us do – we take the given statement for granted. In such cases the directive word comes to the rescue.

        To the question above you can give either views but must have solid evidence to substantiate your arguments.

        Most of us have read or heard somewhere that the given statement above is mostly true.

        I think you can not compare urban and rural poverty in terms of HDI which considers education, life expectancy and income levels as major criteria. In some cases, in these indicators urban poor will be ahead compared to rural poor, but when compared to their urban compatriots, their condition is pathetic.

        May be you can give a balanced answer to this question. If you argue in favour of rural poor being very poor, this belies many other studies.

        Please see the following links:,,contentMDK:20227679~menuPK:473804~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:341325,00.html

  24. Vijay Pateriya
    1 Vote

    )What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    In a Democratic System,individuals and parties contest in election to get the votes and represent the general Electorate in the sacred Parliament.These people and parties prepares manifestos containing demands and needs of the general public and party’s priority and ideology.People are expected to cast their vote after careful acknowledgement of these ideologies.Thus these should be the main determinants of voting behaviour.But practically many latent influences do function.

    India is a multi-party,multi-level democracy where a billion plus electorate elects the representatives to various levels of political system,In last 66 years,15 Loksabha elections people have voted different parties to power not solely on the grouds of their socio-economic programmes,their developmental ideologies but different other forces have been used by these political parties to influence voters opinion.

    Casteism,Regionalism,Linguism,Bribing,offering Favouratism,Communalism are the important needing mention where parties projects the cause of a particular caste,region,language,disadvantaged sections,offers cash and other luxuries to get the valued votes in its favour.Most often now parties are betting upon Criminals as they can also have a hard on impact upon voting pattern.

    India’s vast diversity might be a factor to these causes,Election commission’s efforts has curbed many of these evil practices like booth capturing,providing illegal incentives to voters.Moral code of conduct has been an useful device but some other like casteism are there to stay considering India’s social structure.Efforts like awareness of voters,Voting campains could be considerable,media needs to play a bigger role.Also individual has a moral responsibility to himself maintain the dignity of election process.

    • Vijay Pateriya
      Rate This Response!

      insights and everybody please have a look at my answer do provide feedback

      • Rate This Response!

        Good answer. But one observation: You should not use the word ‘Thus’ in the introduction – ‘Thus these should be the main determinants of voting behaviour’ – it sounds like a conclusion. Also you have not mentioned many ‘determinants’ there to use the above mentioned sentence.

        Also, your second paragraph sounds like another introduction. You would have given a single solid introduction by combining paragraph 1 and 2.

      • Shubhangi
        Rate This Response!

        good attempt. As rightly pointed out by insights, use of “thus” not recommended in initial para.

        You missed most imp point….educational level of voter n candidate.

        Follow simple law of KISS- keep it simple and short.

  25. Evika
    Rate This Response!

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?
    Voting behaviour is politically and psychologically driven. The term explains why and how do people decide their votes. The various factors driving voting behaviour in India can be grouped under socio-economic and political factors.
    An important socio-economic factor is education that enhances people’s normative commitment towards voting. It gives them a higher sense of civic duty and with more political resources at their disposal they can make informed choices.
    Wooing a particular caste has always been the principal agenda of many politicians in India. Recently the Allahabad HC placed a ban on caste-based rally in UP, particularly by BJP, Congress, BSP and SP.
    Religion plays as important a role as caste in influencing voting behaviour. BJP is notorious for perpetuating secularism and causing communal violence by raising issues like Ayodhya.
    Lingual controversies play a role in state level politics. The decision on separation of Telangana from AP by the Congress that is seen as election gimmick is a case in hand.
    There are other factors like Regionalism, ideological commitment, class interests and gender that play a major role.
    The political factors like campaigns, rallies, manifestos and freebies are emotional appeals to increase the support base. Unlike socio-economic factors, these instill positive emotions and raise hope about the candidate in the minds of the voters. These help the political parties expand their vote-banks into rural areas where media fails to reach at times.
    The parties use populist slogans like ‘Bharat Nirman’ by the Congress, and ‘India Shinning’ by BJP to induce confidence among voters by giving a consolidated account of the past activities.
    Other factors are Charismatic personality of the candidate, his contacts and party loyalty of the people.
    So, voting behaviour in India is influenced by many factors. Different factors manifest themselves in different regions at different points of time.

  26. kalyani
    2 Votes

    The conditions of urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counter parts. Give your views
    When it comes to the matter of urban poor, majority of us has a misconception that the condition of urban poor are much better than their rural counter parts. But they are actually the worst neglected section in every society. Many of them were migrated from rural areas eyeing better job opportunities and living conditions. But urban cities are not yet prepared to accept such a large flock of migration. So, their life got ended in unhygeinic slums with highest density of population. Back in rural areas they were atleast privileged to pure drinking water and though majority of them didn’t have latrines, there vast lands were there for open defacation. But in urban slums they do lack pure drinking water and in a small area hundreds were defacating, which are the main reasons for communicable diseases. Then, even if they are getting some job, as living cost is too high, they cannot fetch out a decent living which they dreamt. Condition of children are also much worse. They are not getting enough education and child labour is more prevalent among urban children. Most of them prefer child labour to education to earn money and live in the whims and fancies, which are offered in the urban life. And even anti social elements are more palpable in urban children. So, in every strata of life urban poor are suffering more. Since they are labelled as ‘urban poor’ government aids are also meagre when compared to their rural counter parts. So it is the need of the hour from government’s side to improve the living condition of urban poor with more urban poor friendly policies and strategies.

    What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?
    Unlike USA or Britain, India is a vast country with different languages, ethnicities and religion. Hence voting behaviour is also much different from other countries who follow parliamentary system of government. In India vote bank politics plays an important role. Religion, caste, race, charisma are cited some of the few. Though India is known as a secular state, during election and voting time, it seems like blood is thicker than water. In a particular area, where a particular religion is prevalent then people will choose that candidate irrespective of that candidate’s other qualifications or ability to perform. So is the case with caste. Race is another factor. It is difficult for a Keralite to win a seat in Mizoram and vice versa. In the case of charisma, many film stars are entering into political field with this charisma. For Eg, a South India actor contesting in any South Indian constituency and winning the seat. Here people expects that like in films they will be a super hero or God Man in their constituency to wipe out their problems.Language, states and even districts also determines the voting behaviour. Then emotional sentiment for a particular party is another factor. Even if that particular party didn’t meet their expectations, people are not much bothered about that. Some sudden provocation or un expected events also affect the voting behaviour. Now with the spread of internet, socialnetworking sites also plays an important role.

    • kalyani
      Rate This Response!

      Insight, please review

      • Rate This Response!


        Both are good answers when it comes to content. But not so good when it comes to structure. Make introduction and conclusion visible by making them separate paragraphs.

        • kalyani
          Rate This Response!

          Hi Insights, thanks a lot for your valuable comment. Will try to rectify it. you r doing a great job. This answer writing and evaluation will help a lot to understand that where we stand actually in our preparation process

  27. Firefly
    3 Votes

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    The diversity of India’s population ensures multiplicity of determinants working in tandem that influence voting behaviour. However, the weight of certain determinants like caste, religion, region and language far outweighs other determinants such as party ideology, election manifesto, charismatic personality of leader etc.

    The vast majority of Indian population resides in villages. They are illiterate and poverty ridden and have a single source for basing their identity which is their religion or caste. Thus, mobilisation of people on caste lines during elections majorly affects their voting behaviour. Paul Brass and Rajni Kothari have substantiated this line of argument by stating that there has been “politicisation of caste” in Indian elections. Caste has rooted itself first as the sanskritisation tool and later to act as pressure groups in elections. Region and language have been the cause for mobilisation of people too as can be seen with AIADMK and DMK in Tamil Nadu, AGM in Assam and AKali dal in Punjab.

    This is not to argue that other determinants do not influence the choice that the voters make. Election manifestos presented in rallies do count when a voter decides so does the proximity or connection he/ she feels with the leader and the ideology. Communication and especially social networking and the messages that they churn out bear heavily on the minds of young voters. Another factor that influences voting behaviour is how feudalism continues to operate in certain places. Their is proxy voting and the dominant classes do not allow the suppressed classes to exercise their democratic right to vote which influences the ultimate outcome of voting.

    Unarguably a gamut of factors are in play but the major determinants continue to be caste, religion and language.

    • Rate This Response!

      This is a very good answer! Introduction is excellent and second paragraph is superb. :-) I wonder why you didn’t answer all these days! Please continue to answer all the questions. You have grip on language and flow.

    • ecebloggers
      Rate This Response!

      good answer. But avoid bringing optional knowledge into GS like mention of Paul Brass, sanskritisation etc. You can directly introduce concept of politicisation of caste

  28. vipul
    Rate This Response!

    Mandate and structure of OPCW
    OPCW stands for organization for prohibition of chemical weapons. OPCW promotes and ensures the adherence to Chemical weapon convention whose main objective is to exclude completely the possibility of use of chemical weapon and promote peaceful use of chemistry. Declaration &destruction of existing weapons & non-proliferation are the fundamental tenets of Chemical weapon convention.

    Structure of OPCW
    Conference of state parties:
    It is the main organ of organisation consisting of all members of OPCW. COSP undertakes the responsibility of decision making body.Each member has one vote. COSP takes decision on matters or issues with in ambit of convention.on majority vote basis.
    Executive council
    Consists of 41 members elected by COSP for a tenure of 2 years.Executive council’s main objective is to promote the effective implementation & compliance with the Convention.
    Technical Secretariat
    Technical secretariat undertakes the verification measures as mentioned in the convention.It may carry out other functions as assigned by COSP or executive council.

  29. Firefly
    Rate This Response!

    Q2. Structure and mandate of OPCW

    Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is an intergovernmental organisation located in The Hague, Netherlands that upholds the principles set out in Chemical Weapons Convention. It promotes adherence to the convention and verifies the same by on-site inspections. The Chemical weapons convention outlaws production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons. The organisation has expressed its concern at allegations of use of chemical weapons in Damascus and has hoped for an intensive investigation. OPCW is currently a part of UN Investigation team at Syria.

    It has an Executive Council that looks after the budget and co-ordinates with the General Body. The Technical Secretariat carries out the task set out by Executive Council. The members meet annually at Conference of State Parties. The countries are represented at the conference by a “permanent representative” who is generally also the ambassador to Netherlands. The conference decides on matters like guidelines, imposing penalties and future plans.

  30. ekta
    1 Vote

    1. What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    Main determinants of voting behaviour determine the factors which can influence the psychology of a person to vote a certain person of a certain party in direct elections.

    Due to the hegemony of certain parties, people do get driven by their popularity. Even a candidate with criminal record associated with a popular party can get elected.

    India being deeply a caste based society, people feel ensured by voting a person from the same caste. It is said that “in India, you do not caste your vote, rather you vote your caste.” Many parties include reservations in their manifesto to woo certain caste group. Thus, caste politics is a major feature and determinant of elections in india.

    Success of policies, welfare schemes aimed especially at the poor and lower income group also influence their voting behaviour. For example, recently tabled National Food Security Bill is seen by many parties as a game changer in favour of the present government in the next general elections. It is also seen that
    people from lower strata actively participate by casting votes as compared to upper strata.

    India being a tolerant society and accomodating different religions is still to cope up with the mentality that only persons from same religion can ensure proper representation. So religion plays an important part in shaping voting behaviour.

    In today’s technology driven world, reachout of political leaders through mass media, social networking sites also appeals to conscience of younger urban population.

    The effect of these determinants vary with time and the nature of society. At the time of first general elections in India, providing Universal adult Sufferrage to such a large and mostly illiterate population was called as ‘one of the biggest gambles in the history of the world’. However, it is observed that people in India have voted in a very intelligent manner by punishing the ruling govt and voting the other whenever required.

    • ekta
      Rate This Response!

      kindly review .

      • karav
        Rate This Response!

        nice try. simple ,almost touched every point needed, but still some in depth points are missing like constitutional literacy related points, regionalisation of poltics,.But it was quite good that you wrote in points,easy to read.

        • ekta
          Rate This Response!

          Thankyou karav for the review.
          Yes, regionalisation of politics is a good point, don’t know constitutional literacy in depth as a determinant of voting bahaviour.

  31. Kirthi
    4 Votes

    I have been facing the same problem as firefly. Lost confidence because of lack of knowledge on questions given and tendency to compare answers. Will attempt answers from now on :)

    • Maaduri
      3 Votes


      I am also facing the same problem. But trying to answer one question daily. join the club :)

    • Anjali
      Rate This Response!

      You were, writing nicely, I am nowhere if compared to others English, structure and flow in answer, but I attempt one question to learn evryday. 3 months less time and more to do. Keep your morale high.

      • Kirthi
        Rate This Response!

        Thank you anjali, I realized it is improvement over oneself that matters and not how well one does in comparison to others. Thanks a lot Anjali :) I owe a lot to insights and people here who motivate and push us to write

  32. TR
    1 Vote

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    The voting behaviour in a democracy refers to the study of various factors and their effects on creating or changing the outlook of general public with regard to their choice of the candidates in the elections. India , having the virtue of being one of the most heterogeneous regions in the world a is certain to have a plethora of the factors which affect the mind-set of voters in tandem.

    The most important factors for selecting the candidate are based on socio-economic status and the level of education of the voters. And for India, as these factors are indirectly influenced by the caste, the caste itself acts as a pivot factor for influencing voting behaviour. The poor,uneducated and ppl having low level of political awareness would often choose the candidate which belong to a specific caste disregarding other credentials of the candidate e.g. party’s ideological postion, past record and the achievements of the party and the candidate.

    The next big factor is the performance of the party in the past, the development work done in the region concerned and promises made by the party in the manifesto. Also general perception about the party in the State determines chances of success of the same at the center and vice a versa.

    Often the ideological position of family,teachers and peers has a big impression on a persons choice of the candidate.

    Recently, there is a rising trend of selecting celebrities related to film,cricket and other fields to advertise for one’s party or even giving them tickets for the constituency. This again is very important factor for changing the mindset of people.

    In brief, there are numerous factors which modify voting behaviour and a number of these factors work in tandem to modify the final result, and also the importance of these factors for each society,region and state vary with time. Thus it is very complex to determine their conclusive effect on the people’s outlook.

  33. Kirthi
    1 Vote

    Determinants of voting behavior in India?

    Voting pattern in india depends on interplay of number of factors both local and national. For the first past the post mode of representative elections in India, the voter turn out ratio of around 60-70 percent is comparable to other mature democracies. The inspiring factor is that poorer sections of population has highest voter turnout demonstrates their confidence in democracy, in spite of the sufferingsthey face.

    Voters are exploited by various identities existing in India, its feudal faction ridden past, hierarchies in society etc. Voting pattern depended generally on local exploitation of factors like caste ideologies, religion based identify, tribal identities etc. However post mandal period and introduction of reservation for OBCs in educational and government services, voting pattern is considerably influenced by promises of inclusion of caste in OBCs.

    Voting pattern during 1970s for Indira Gandhi govt. shows considerable support for pro poor policies like nationalization of banks, abolition of pricy policies, Garibi hatao promises etc. Post emergency historic voting for Janata party cross cutting all other local ideologies shows that civil liberties, democracy and freedom of press etc are not just preoccupations of middle or upper classes.

    However, recently, at the constituency level there is dominant anti incumbency factor because of lack of good governance, basic necessities of life to live a human existence etc.

    Voting pattern had changed according to times and depends on dominant issues among perceived governance, identity factors, ideologies, perceived benefits etc.

  34. Abhishek Kumar
    1 Vote

    “What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?”

    Voting as a right to its every citizen has been provided in the article 326 of constitution which acts as important constituent of a democratic country. It directly associates public opinion in the political decision making of the country. The study of the factors which influence the voting pattern is called as voting behavior. It is difficult to find out any particular factor for voting behavior which can be used by political parties to win the trust of its people.
    Cast has been one of the pertinent determining factors in pointing out voter’s behavior. Currently it is playing important role in state politics with parties with their caste agenda gaining sympathies people of their cast by pointing neglect and ignorance on their development.
    Religion is also playing important role in both state and national politics. Rather than integrating, it is becoming the very reason for dividing the society for the bias towards particular religion. Language as a factor is not active in state politics but in national politics it manifests in the form of Hindi and non-Hindi belts.
    Regionalism since independence had been a popular determinant of voter’s attitude with parties popularizing underdevelopment, poverty, unemployment in their region and demanding separate states on the basis of better administration. This factor can be seen in the demands of Telengana, Gorkhaland, Vidarbha etc.
    Political parties with no current achievement sometimes try to reiterate the achievements gained in the past and by commemorating the decisions of their earlier charismatic leaders they try to arouse the sentiments of voters towards them.
    Catchy slogans like ‘Roti Kapada Aur Makaan’, ‘Garibi Hatao’ mixed with strong political commitments helped in awakening the hope of development in the masses which turned out to be major factors in political victory. Sometimes immediate cause also determines the public opinion like the decision of Emergency by Congress in 1970’s had cost them 1978 election to Janata Party.
    Apart from above election manifestos, economic condition, political consciousness are also turning out to be major factor in making out voter’s decision in current scenario. All the above factor work in tandem at any particular time and it is also not definite that which factor play major role at any specific time.

    I will be thankful if anyone comments…………

    • Rate This Response!

      Good answer. Most of the points are there. But you have used 368 words instead of 250.

      • adi
        1 Vote

        while its too much to ask but its equally needed that i lacks in writing skills as my counterparts are showing here,even i thinks i am not up to that level in terms of flow and maintaining words.Morever ,this time upsc had deducted the answer sheet ,So playing with words makes sense as examiner will have answer + question in same no bluffing could be adhered .so would you suggest us some more intensive points to bridge this gap in such short spam time.
        while i had read your comments on writing skills but that too small ,so please sir work for us with more planned strategy ,MOrever i will try my best from write more answer and get indulge with my counterparts to boost my skill level ,still sir have a bird eye view over this also.
        thank you
        you are doing immense hard work without telling your identity …keep it up sir…!!

    • Anjali
      Rate This Response!

      Abhishek, don’t use, it is difficult to find out, political parties do use various means to influence voters. Rest is good.

  35. 1 Vote

    2)“The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

    Poverty in rural and urban India is one of the major problems. In spite of Govt.’s initiative the problem has remained more or less same. In rural India problems faced by poor are different in kind than urban poor in some aspects. But the reason behind their deplorable condition is same i.e financial incapability.

    In India from past itself, the trend of migration remained from rural to urban area mainly for job opportunity. In rural India people are solely dependent on agriculture which is fully dependent on uncertainty of monsoon. The problem remains more pathetic because most of the rural poor are landless and work as a wage labour in others land. On the other hand urban areas require mainly skill workforce but work of wage labor also more or less available. So it is found agriculture labour or farmer are committing suicide more than wage labourer of urban area.

    Rural poor also face the ill-treatment of higher class in the form of untouchable but in urban area caste system is rarely visible.
    In case of natural calamities, Govt.’s help hardly or lately reaches to urban poor because of their distant from authority and absence of social media. Whereas in urban areas, it readily attracts the attention of people and govt.

    But the story is not favorable in all aspects of urban poor. In urban areas hardly any space is left for poor. So they need to take shelter in congested, unhygienic slum or under the flyover or under the open sky whether it is summer or winter or rainy season.

    Slums rarely get attraction of govt. or any political party because most of them are migrated and do not figure in voter list. As they are not having ration card, hardly get the facility of PDS or other govt.’s scheme. So they are in most of the cases deprived of basic amenities.

    Urban poor also bears the heat of high prices of food articles and other basic amenities in comparison to their rural counterpart. Like rural poor faces the tyranny of urban elite, urban poor comes under the tyranny of local gundas and need to give hafta.

    Urban and rural poor both are struggling with poverty. It is hard to compare who is in who is in worst condition. Because all the problems faced by them are spatial in nature and dependent on time to time. So rural poor in West Bengal may be in better condition than their counter part in urban areas of Kolkata or Mumbai and rural poor of A.P are in worst condition in comparison to their counterpart in Delhi or Mumbai.

    • Rate This Response!

      Insights and other friends please comment on my answer and may I go agaist the statement of question specially when direction of question “coment or evaluate or give your views.”

      • Rate This Response!


        The word limit is 250. Not 450.

        You have used more words unnecessarily to explain a single point. You should directly hit the point. Try to tell more in few words.

        In questions where the directive is ‘comment’ or ‘give your views’ you can give your opinion but you should argue with evidences. If the same is prefixed with ‘critically’, you have to give a balanced opinion.

        Evaluate is different where you have to assess the value of something. It usually asked where you have to assess performance of something or validity of some statement.

  36. 3 Votes

    1)What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?
    Voting behavior is one of the most important pillars of credible democratic system. It determines the future leadership who will command the politico-admin structure and enact policies for socio-economic developments of a nation. As India is a multi ethno-cultural, religious and lingual country, various factors are at work that defines the voter’s conscience.
    Firstly, India has a prevalent caste system that affects the consciousness of the voter. It has been misused, abused and overused by political parties to garner votes. Secondly, religious divide also change the voting proportions and has the capacity to break or make a government. Thirdly regional issues are fast gaining strength after the advent of globalization. The issues based on divisive politics, socio- economic development disparities have taken a toll in the parochial and state elections which led to mobilization of vast number of voters in favour of regional parties leading to formation of coalition governments. Other factors like educational level of voters, ideology of the political parties and charisma of leadership, cronyism has also affected the pattern of voting system.
    There is also a disjunction between rural and urban voting. The last mile penetration of internet and social networking sites in urban spaces and innovative, assertive media helped in increased political culture of the voters which led to increased paid news in mainstream media and newspapers.
    Hence, India as a diverse country has a diversified voting pattern based on multifarious interest and needs leading to mitigation of polarization of power in political structure.

    • Rate This Response!

      please review both of my answers

      • Rate This Response!

        in the last line , it would be diversified voting pattern instead of political system..please change it. Thank You

      • Anjali
        Rate This Response!

        Sahil, introduction is excellent.

        • Rate This Response!

          Important points like announcement of freebies by political parties, contents of manifestos, anti-incumbency, performance of governments, influence of local leadership, etc.

          Media influence is a very good point.

          Point on rural-urban voting disjunction is not clear. It starts with mentioning the influence of social media and end up talking about paid news.

          Both introduction and conclusion are very good.

          • Rate This Response!

            Thank you insights for providing more points. i think social media importance and its relation with paid news can also alter the voting bahaviour but in urban areas as there is more literacy there. I think, i did not write in lucid language and was not able to convey my idea. Thank you insight for pointing out.

      • Rate This Response!

        @insight : sir , review please

  37. Rate This Response!

    2) “The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.
    The advent of globalization and corresponding growth has created prosperity in certain pockets leading to great migration of countryside people for better opportunities. This led to growth of urban slums, pavement dwellers and petty unskilled and marginalized sections suffering from lack of basic amenities. The urban poor are becoming more and more vulnerable to due various reasons and employment in degrading and menial jobs.
    The non availability of basic amenities like house dwellings, drinking water, proper waste disposal and sewage system, lack of sanitation facilities have led to a pathetic situation for urban poor as there are large spaces of free land in rural areas. Further they are always at risk of being evicted by the municipal corporations and public works departments due to trespassing over government property and lack of awareness of their rights. While is case of rural areas, Panchayats are the governing units with grass root level participation of the people.
    Low health indicators of urban poor due to environmental problems and pollution with high population density in slums areas have led to increase in contagious diseases. This is also leading to high out of pockets expenses due to higher cost of treatment thus eroding their savings base. Other conditions that defines urban poor are that their areas the fast becoming the hotspots of hunger and under nutrition; high cost of living in the urban areas, employment in manual scavenging jobs etc
    The government has introduced various measures like Rajiv Awaas Yojna, JNNURM and health and insurance cards for urban poor for better delivery of services and basic amenities and is also considering implementation of food security but still a lot needs to be done to achieve an all inclusive society.

  38. Shweta
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    What are the main determinants of voting behaviour in India?

    In a democracy as diverse as India, economically, socially, culturally and politically, various factors, major and minor, work in tandem to influence the voting patterns and behaviour of voters during elections. While factors like caste, religion and language are the major influences, others as language, party ideology, legacy of influential leaders/parties also play their role.

    Caste-based and religion-based politics have made a firm grip on Indian democracy with parties like BSP, BJP etc having wide base among people of particular caste and religion resp. Language has played a major role in mobilising people ever since independence, more so in the southern part of the country. With parties like Shiv Sena, Akali Dal coming to the political stage, regionalism has taken roots among Indian democracy. Parties like CPI(M) have found a solid ground in states of West Bengal, Kerala based on their ideological commitments. As was most evident during the Nehru years of Congress, often the charisma of a particular leader has led to people rallying behind that particular party.

    Economic factors like state of development, inflation, unemployment, election freebies and promises made in election manifestos do have, but mainly a short-term impact on voter preferences in India. Because of their greater penetration in urban areas, literacy, technology, mass media, social networking and internet reflect the variability in Rural v/s urban voter patterns.

    Though a plethora of factors are at work currently to affect the voting behaviour in India, but with structural reforms underway, and growing spread of literacy and technology, it is expected that Indian electorate will rise above the parochial considerations and make more informed choices in future.

  39. Shweta
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    2)“The conditions of the urban poor are more deplorable than that of their rural counterparts”. Give your views.

    Painting a grim picture of India’s otherwise lavish urbanscape are the urban slums hoarded with unskilled and marginalised sections who make their living as domestic workers, petty street vendors, construction workers etc. Living in closely packed dwellings around uncongenial settings these people lack access to basic amenities, sanitation, water and electricity supply. The over-crowded and shady habitations are usually breeding grounds for vector-borne diseases, asthma etc.

    Rural inhabitants who migrate to urban areas in search of better employment, education and housing avenues often face identity crisis in cities and are therefore, excluded from the social security net and various government entitlements and subsidies. Having to face a much higher cost of living in cities, these people end up being prey to hunger, malnutrition, poverty and diseases. The pavement dwellers, women and children in particular, often fall victims to drug-abuse, trafficking, alcoholism etc.

    With majority of government welfare schemes (MNREGA, SJGSY, MDM schemes, NRHM, PRIs) targeted at improving conditions of rural livelihood, urban poor face lack of access to these basic resources and amenities which their rural counterparts enjoy, as has been pointed in a UNICEF study.

    Of late, the government has realised the tragedy of this vast section of population which constitutes a large chunk of the unorganised workforce in cities and come up with schemes targeted specifically at the urban poor like BSUP, JNNURM, RAY, RSBY etc. It now needs to be seen if these welfare programmes acheive the desired benefits for the urban poor as have been reaped by the rural populace via rural-centric shemes.

  40. Kirthi
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    What do you understand by the term ‘Rule of Law’? How does the constitution of India seeks to establish it

    The rule of law concept as propounded by AV DICEY, has three main elements – no man can be punished expect for breach of law, equality before law i.e. every man subject to ordinary law and tried in ordinary courts of land and primacy of rights of individual. The first and second elements have been incorporated in indian constitution.

    Rule of law has been realized by having a written and rigid constitution, doctrine of supremacy of constitution, independent judiciary, art 32 where in judicial review being a fundamental right,art 14 ensuring equality before law and rule of law forming a part of basic structure of constitution. However, exercise of arbitrary power by the state has been possible by complexity of laws, subordinate legislation, slow moving criminal judicial system, archaic laws and vague provisions like hurting religious sentiments etc. the recent arrests of two girls in Mumbai,, writer in UP for posting content in Facebook on vague grounds is a case in point. Some provisions in AFSPA subjecting armed forces personnel to martial courts even for allegations of sexual violence etc. tend to dilute the spirit of rule of law.

    Moreover , tendency to nullify the judicial pronouncements rather than review like recent judgement on tax Vodafone case, CIC order, golaknath, privy purses and nationalization of banks cases by constitutional amendments, 39 and 41 constitutional amendments placing governor, president , VP, PM free from civil and criminal proceeding lifetime etc. are excess committed on the part of legislature.

    Rule of law being part of basic structure of constitution is given its due place and cannot be altered by amendment of constitution, however there is a need for spirit of rule of law to be realized.

    • Kirthi
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      I am little confused, can Art 13 which express judicial review and art 32 be included by their contribution to rule of law?

      • 1 Vote

        Yes Articles 13, 32 and 226 should be mentioned in this answer. The question is not about ‘contribution to rule of law’.

        The questions ask you how our constitution ‘seeks to establish’ rule of law, so, above articles does the same by giving courts and citizens the means of Judicial Review and Constitutional Remedies (in case of infringement of fundamental rights) respectively.

        Article 32 is the very soul of our constitution as said by Dr. Ambedkar.

        Article 14, which is at the heart of rule of law doctrine, is secure because of articles 13, 32 and 226.

        • Kirthi
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          Got it. Thanks a lot:)

        • Kirthi
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          Small doubt, have I diverted from what is asked in the question and further complicate the matter? What are the things that shouldn’t be mentioned

          • Rate This Response!

            Yes you have diverted. Penultimate paragraph and few sentences before talk about how Indian state is breaching ‘rule of law’. Instead you should have talked about how constitution seeks to establish it by stressing on articles 13, 14, 32, and few SC cases upholding the rule of law.

            In the second paragraph, first line you have said rigid constitution’. Actually our constitution is ‘more flexible than rigid’. :-)

            • Kirthi
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              Thank you. Should talk about how sanctity of art 14 is maintained. Yes , even I was not happy while mentioning rigidity aspect. Thanks a lot. :)

  41. Maaduri
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    Good answer. I feel that a conclusion with one or two sentences at the end would have made it perfect.

  42. Firefly
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    Hey Insights!
    My basic roadblock in answer writing is lack of knowledge. I feel I should be working on that rather than taking on specific questions. What do you recommend? Should I spend 2 hours everyday researching and writing these answers or should I give myself time to build on content and practice answer writing in the last month.

    Also there are certain general questions like today’s question regarding urban and rural poor but I lack a mature perspective on that. Can’t quote reports and stats or such. So what is the use of attempting? Brings me down infact to see myself writing such naive answers in comparison to what other people are writing.

    This is my first attempt and I am uncertain about how things are going to work out.
    Please suggest strategy.

  43. 3 Votes


    Don’t worry about how your answer looks in comparison to others’ answers. The advantage of this program is that it pushes you to read topics from syllabus tha you may have not read/read and think over those topics. Once you write something on what you read, it firmly implants in your mind.

    It is better to research for two hours and write answers. Some aspirants have improved so much here. After few days you too will start writing excellent answers. Remove the thought of presenting ‘very good’ or ‘perfect answer’ – it is a stumbling block. Just Do It! :-)

    If you thnk your answers are naive – don’t worry, just be open to harshest criticisms and go for it. It is all for your good.

  44. Firefly
    1 Vote

    Thank you so much.
    Will start attempting from today itself and let the harshest criticism be my motivation. :-)

  45. 1 Vote

    Welcome on board :-)