QUESTIONS ASKED – DAY – 32 (21/09/2013)
1)How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement?
2)Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.
3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry.(150 words)
Social Forestry pertains to management and protection forests , and promoting afforestation activities on barren lands for environment preservation, promotion and sustainable use of forest goods.
The needs of villages including fuelwood , fruits , gums and lac from trees are essentially growing and with the increasing demographic pressure on land there is an urgent need for plantation and preservation of forests. Through its four components of farm forestry , community forestry ,extension forestry and agro forestry the programme aims to use the community and personal lands of villagers to grow more trees .This not only provide additional sources of income but also help in reclaiming degrade land , moisture and nutrient conservation , prevents further soil erosion and creates environmental awareness.
In villages of Kerala social Forestry has been combined with MNREGA for constructive afforestation work on the community lands and seeing the benefits especially of silviculture which combines agricultural crops with orchard farming , livestock ranching and tree growing , it has been adopted on personal farm lands as well .There is a need to promote such activities and hold events like Vanmahotsava, Environment Day more often on national scale as well.
2)Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.
The Congress-Khilafat non-cooperation movement was aimed at reverting the wrongs of Treaty of Sevres , Jallianwala Bagh and Rowlatt Acts and to attain Swaraj.
The programme included both constructive and destructive programmes. Constructive being the promotion to khadi , swadeshi , national schools and colleges ,hindu-muslim unity and abolition of untouchability. The destructive program of renunciation of honours of titles , boycott of government schools and services and above all boycott of foreign products bleeded the British coffers and their pride.
Gandhi introduced important changes in Congress by adopting a peaceful manner for attainment of Swaraj instead of the earlier clause of constitutional manner , brought down the membership fees and instructed reorganized ward and provincial communities on linguistic lines .This was to have more impact on the locals and help the masses be inducted into the movement.
The programme was hugely successful all over the country with the exception of communal colour the movement got in Kerala.However the events of Chauri Chaura forced him to withdraw the movement.
This led to much resentment amongst many people including Congress leaders and was seen as a failure of Gandhi . It may looked he was protecting the capital class and was scared of movement slipping out of his hands to radical elements the reality is different.
This was the first mass scale movement and everyone looked upto Gandhi for all leadesrship at all the stages. If Gandhi had allowed the movement post Chauri Chaura it would have attracted widespread repression from the government as movement was no longer non-violent.This would have demoralized and dented their confidence for future action. By taking the blame on himself Gandhi actually shielded the people from both repression and demoralization .
‘bleeded the British coffers and their pride’ is a very strong statement that u used. Anyway, I liked the points on constitutional change and communal color in Kerela. But u spent too many words justifying Gandhiji’s withdrawl of the movement. Is it asked for in the qn?
RV, I don’t think NCM had limited aims, which u stated in introduction. Gandhiji himself assured people to free themselves of foreign rule within one year.
Hi Evika thanx fr your comments ! Since they asked for critical assessment i provided all the necessary points and focused on the part that withdrawal had created a resenment amongst people and academics are still divided on the question whether it was correct or not ! if could tell me why is it coffers and pride thing wrong ?
Hi Anjali ! Maybe i was wrong to put it up as aim but they movement wanted to reverse the wrongs and attain swaraj ! and it is infact one of the criticisms that movement couldnot get the wrongs reversed ! Anyways thanx fr your comments would review again !
Leaders since the very beginning were pained by the deplorable condition of women who faced discrimination right from her birth to death. If she was lucky enough to survive infanticide she was subjugated forever in the patriarchal social setup with evils of illiteracy , child marriage, and harrowing act of Sati plaguing her life.
The British earlier had resisted from interfering with the local customs of the people .With the penetration of modern education , humanism and rationalism people like Raja Ram Mohun Roy, Ishwar Chand Vidyasagar and Anand Dutt sought to rational and scientific thinking and throught this impressed upon the British to pass acts like Sati Abolition and Widows Remarriage Act.
Women education was increasingly recognised as powerful means of empowerment and promoted through the Bethune School under Vidyasagar , works of Jyotibha Phule,others and later through the constructive programs . These educated women like Kadambini Ganguly , Sarojini Naidu later themselves catalysed the awareness and liberation of women and hence it had a multiplication effect .
The brave acts of Rani lakshibai and later women like Rani Gadirchilu, Aruna Asaf Ali , Madame Cama rekindled the strength and confidence in women to break their chains of homely restrictions and participate in the national movement shoulder to shoulder with men.
Through the adoption of mass struggle programme the leaders recognised the inherent contribution of women in protests , alcohol and drugs picketing , khadi spinning , renunciation of foreign goods , and their determined commitment to the national cause . Hence during non cooperation , civil disobedience and others there were special instructions given to them and women responded by coming out in large numbers responding to the faith shown in them .
3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry:
Social Forestry is defined as the planting of trees outside the conventional forest areas.The Social Forestry project was launched by National Commission On Agriculture in 1976. The main aim of Social Forestry was to reduce the pressure on the forests which were indiscriminately cut down for fuel,timber,forest products etc.Social Forestry project was launched as a community driven project.The local people were made aware to plant trees on their land be it agricultural land or their private land.Also they were encouraged to grow trees on barren land.The Government also started planting trees alongside railway tracks,highways,canals etc.Plants were grown in village common land,Government wastelands and Panchayat lands.The plantation done helps in soil conservation and bring rainfall.The rights of people living on the periphery of the forests have been recognized by the Government b introducing this scheme.
In year 1919, sentiment across all India was of discontent. Several measures like Rowaltt act,Jaliawala Bagh massacre, failure of Monatague -chelmsford reforms & poor treatment of Turkey after the war etc. had dis appointed each and every section of Indian society. Khilafat leaders had left all the hopes that British would save the Turkey empire whom Muslims used to treat as their Spiritual leaders. Gandhi Ji convinced the Khilafat leaders to raise a non-violent,non-cooperation protest against the government. On 1 August,1920 Gandhi ji officially launched the Non-cooperation movement. Congress at the same time was not seeing any political advance through constitutional means and launched its non-cooperation movement at later point of time.
Main features of NCM were surrender of titles, awards or honours, boycott of government schools, non-payment of taxes, boycott of foreign cloths etc. Gandhi ji also proposed the idea of setting up national schools & colleges, Panchayats to settle disputes, hand spinning units and promising unity across caste & religions.Gandhi Ji believed that all these measures would lead India to Swaraj. Congress also supported the means of extra-constitutional mass action. Congress changed it objective to attainment of Swaraj from self –government.
Within few months, thousands of people left the government schools and joined the national schools. Many leading lawyers ML nehru,V.L Patel,C R das left their practices. Boycott of foreign cloth was very successful. Government revenue showed a considerable decline during this period of boycott. Khilafat leaders also asked muslims to Boycott the british army.Assam laborer in tea planation went on strike.Definace of forest laws becma epopualr in andhra. Punjab Akali movement peaked its activties to get control of gurudwaras from corrupt mahants.
British government found it completely on back foot. NCM was successful to reach every nook & corner of country and involve each & every section of society. But suddenly movement started turning violent. After Chora-Chori incident Gandhi ji decided to with draw the movement despite the criticism from his own supporters.Gandhi Ji knew that British might was still capable enough to suppress a violent movement in moments.
Focus should be on ‘worth’ or ‘value’ of the movement – what outcome it had, how it influenced/not influenced people/leaders. You have explained the features of the movement.
“How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement?”
Indian society was creeping with various evils such as child marriage, female infanticide, purdah system, devdasi and sati during British period. Socio-economic-political conditions of women were at bottom due to male dominance and illiteracy.
Early nationalist and reformist realized that without liberating women from clutches of social evils freedom for India was difficult and process of India as nation in making was only possible through women empowerment. Liberating forces for women such as legal measures, education and western ideas progressed with the rise and growth of national movement. First phase of which was characterized by abolition of various evils such as sati and child marriage and by supporting widow remarriage. Ram Mohan Roy, I.C. Vidhyasagar, M.G. Ranade and B.M.Malabari succeeded winning favor of British to pass various legislations to curb these evils.
Second phase was dominated by spread of education to masses especially to women. British and Indian nationalist favoured western education. A number of schools were set up due to efforts of J.E.D. Betune and Annie Besant. Education developed rationality and sense of morality. Education also brought in western ideas such as liberty, equality and human rights.
Third phase was period of increasing participation of women in political and national organization. Various women leaders such as Annie Besant, Sarojini Naidu and Corneli Sorabjee acted as catalyst in establishing women centric organizations like AIWC and WIA.
Above three phases progressed sequentially with the rise and growth of nationalist movement which was evident from progressive rise of participation of women in national movement from swadeshi, non-cooperation, CDM to Quit India movement.
Insights please review…..I was confused between HOW DID….And WHY DID part of question but I tried to stick to HOW DID THE MOVEMENT……..
The question can be reread as ‘How did the growth of nationalist movement stimulated women’s liberation movement?’
I think focus should be on how national movement provided a platform/launchpad/encouragement for the liberation movement of women. Here, one should ask what constituted ‘women’s liberation movement’ during the national movement.
In your answer you have explained how reformers tried to liberate women. How national movement influenced their work is missing.
Nicely presented. But I am not sure about the timeline u provided by dividing the answer into phases. Even Raja Ram Mohan lended his support for women education.
Good points though.
I agree with evika ..
You could have been a bit more comprehensive ..
3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry.(150 words)
Social forestry is an approach to reduce the pressure of forest produce like wood, fodder & grass on the traditional forest area. Under this system, individuals & communities are encouraged to plant trees on their holdings, barren lands to meet the local demand for forest produce. Social forestry includes agro-forestry, community forestry, commercial & noncommercial forestry.
India’s forest cover is 23 % which is far below the target of 33 % set in National forest policy 1952. In time of ever growing demand for forests resource due to population explosion & rising Industrial needs, Social forestry may be an effective approach to protect the forests.
Main aims of social forestry system are:
1) Reduce the resource pressure on traditional forests
2) Meet the local population forest produce needs from social forestry system
3) Afforestation on barren land
4) Improve community participation in forest managements
5) Source of additional revenue for farmers
Non-cooperation movement (1919-22) also known as the khilafat-non cooperation movement is the important event in the indian freedom struggle. It is built around the concept of khilafa of Turkey and the bad treatment meted out to him after the first world war. Though it started by muslim leaders later it was taken over by indian national congress.
Though many leaders like tilak opposed the issue of khilaf being taken at the national level Gandhi wanted to use this opportunity to build the hindu-muslim unity, which was straining by the divisive politics of british.
The methods employed were completely gandhian, non-violent. Use of Khadi and ban on use of import clothes, non use of liverpool salt are the main measures. Methods like hartals, picketing shops which sell liquor are also employed. But the movement was called off when the violent mob torched the police station at chaura chauri. This has shocked the entire nation but all have obliged. Later the khilafa issue itself is settled down because of the turkish revolution. So ultimately the movement is fizzled out.
The movement has brought the hitherto untouched sections into the fold of national struggle. This has shown the power of mob and demonstrated the efficacy of non-violent form of the struggle. From now on the nature of freedom struggle has changed forever. On the flip side it has communalised the politics which had very grave consequences to the nation ahead.
dear all kindly give your comments
2nd para not needed at all. Intro not very impressive.
Critical assessment is skewed….only single line negative side while many for positive.
Should have mentioned positive and negative of NCM in balanced and lucid style. Tilak swaraj fund, spinning wheel distri, khadi promotion, hindu muslim unity are missing.
Structure is not very impressive.
But positive sides are first, word limit perfect….second, language simple though not well structured.
Please review my answer for HOW DID LIBERATION OF WOMEN………
Introduction must tell the reader what your answer is going to be. Hit the answer directly. What is khilafat or how it got its name is not relevant to the question right?
Non cooperation movement which was launched in 1920 by Indian National Congress and led by gandhiji, was the biggest mass movement till that time.
A lot of reasons like the jallianwala bagh massacre, resentment against Government Of India Act, 1919, khilafat movement were responsible for launching the movement.
The methods of struggle employed by NCM included boycott of foreign goods, educational institutions, government machinery, promotion of Swadeshi goods, picketing of liquour shops etc.
The movement was significant in many ways.
Firstly, it was able to mobilize a lot of people from various sections of the society.Before this movement, any struggle was confined to urban areas only. the vast energy of the rural areas which gave the movement its actual mass character was missing till now. The NCM, was able to make inroads into the villages.
Secondly, it brought the British government under pressure. the boycott of government institutions brought the government at back foot and they did not have ways to crush the movement.
Thirdly, it became the best example of Hindu-Muslim unity and hindus and Muslim faced the brutalities of administration together.
However, while NCM could boast of various firsts, it was criticized by certain leaders as well. Gandhiji promised Swaraj within a year, but the movement failed to achieve its aims. The abrupt calling off of the movement due to the incident in Chouri Choura was also criticized by various leaders like motilal Nehru, Vitthalbhai Patel etc.
In spite of all the criticisms, the movement was a major landmark in the history of struggle against the British. the methods of struggle it adopted and the participation it achieved quickly made it popular among the masses and gandhiji their natural leader. Certainly it was not able to achieve the freedom, but it did prove to be a crucial battle in the bigger war for independence.
I used 307.
One of the areas, i have to work sincerely!!
Relevant answer. Bad introduction. You can make it compelling. You can try this small exercise – read your answer from third paragraph til the end and then write an introduction. I am sure it will be a different but very good introduction.
2) Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.
Gandhiji launched NCM in response to the unfortunate Jallianwala Bagh incident, Rowlatt Act and most importantly the Khilafat movement. As a result, the movement saw the height of Hindu Muslim unity. In fact, it was the Muslim participation that gave it a national character.
Also, it was the first mass movement in the sense that it touched the remotest sections of the society including peasants, workers, artisans, professionals and students, spread all over the country. For the movement, people surrendered titles and boycott government schools, law courts and foreign cloth. The promotion of charkha and khadi and village reconstruction program helped in economic revival. They showed audacity in resigning from government services and mass civil disobedience including non-payment of taxes. Hence, INC disproved the charge hurled at it by the British about it representing a ‘microscopic minority’.
The movement succeeded on many counts. It increased the self-confidence of the people. It showed that national freedom was an elemental urge and not a foray by the rich and the educated Indians. It also demonstrated the willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices.
Moreover, the revolutionary terrorists pledged support to the movement to adopt non-violent ways.
It was during the course of NCM that significant changes were introduced in the organizational structure of the Congress. It adopted a new constitution, which had provisions like reducing the membership fees and decentralization of Congress.
So, even though Gandhiji’s decision to withdraw the NCM is criticized by many sections to this day and it failed to attain its goal of Swaraj, the movement had far-reaching consequence on the people and national struggle.
Good answer. But a more light could have been brought on the criticisms as well. But it is a good answr
Very good answer. You focus is spot on.
Good answer ! All points in
3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry (150 words)
As opposed to commercial forestry, social forestry is the practice of maintenance and protection of forests in and around human settlements for local needs. It includes afforestation on barren lands. This is done in four ways: farm forestry, community forestry, extension forestry and agro forestry.
Farm forestry is the tradition of growing trees on private farmland to meet domestic needs or for shade, soil conservation and utilization of fallow land.
Community forestry means growing trees on community land where the government supplies seeds and fertilisers and the community people protect the trees and use the forest produce. Afforestation along roadside, canals and railway lines constitutes extension forestry.Agro forestry is a sustainable land use system that encourages growing trees and livestock ranching along with farming on the same land.
The main purpose is to help in environmental, social and rural development. It’s done to protect the traditional forests from the consistent demand for fuel wood by the growing population, which largely depends on forest products like timber, fuel wood and fodder.
Insights, kindly comment on both my answers.
Evika you have not pointed out the various advantages like food, employment , income generated from other forest produces. I think instead of pointing out each type of SF , you should have concentrated more on the advantages and elaborated them a bit more…
Please check my answers too
Yeah I was confused where to give more weightage-the meaning or the aim of social forestry. I checked u concentrated more on advantages. Will keep it in mind the next time. Thank u!
Issues related to women were the centre of most of the reforms beginning in the first half of 19th century. Female infanticide, sati, child marriage, polygamy etc were some of the major problems affecting womenfolks. However, the real push to these reform movements was provided by the nationalist movement.
The nationalist leaders were well aware of the importance of women participation in the nationalist struggle. Gandhiji realized that the women folk need to step out of the house and take part in the movements. Thus he gave great importance to the participation of women in all his movements and constructive works.
The various modes of struggle included picketing of liquor shops, spinning khadi clothes using charkha, boycott of foreign goods. These issues were most relevant for the welafare of the women and when these became the mainstay of gandhian strategy, they gave a huge boost to the movement for liberation of women.
This new found freedom was fully utilized by the women and a lot of them came forward to join the national movement. Kasturba Gandhi, Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali, Usha Mehta inspired women to participate in the national movement. The success in their efforts was visible in the heavy participation of women in Civil Dispobedience movement
and Quit India movement.
I am confused…..whether the qtn was…..WHY DID or HOW DID? You have cited reasons for liberation of women(WHY DID) but question also demands the course of liberation of women with rise in nationalism(HOW DID) part.
Correct me if I m wrong. Please review my answer also.
In the second paragraph, the point i wanted to drive home was that the nationalist leaders encouraged the women participation in the nationalist movement. This encouragement gave a boost to women liberation movement.
In the third paragraph, I have tried to explain that there were various modes of struggle which formed an important part in the nationalist movement. These modes (picketing of liquor shops, spinning khadi clothes etc.) also helped in the liberation of women.
Put differently, the question asks you ‘What did Nationalist movement do such that it gave great stimulus to the liberation of women’.
The answer could have points like.
1. It gave importance to women’s participation.
2. It adopted issues which affected women the most.
What do you think?
Your clarification is correct. Many have misunderstood the question.
Good answer and also good introduction. May be more depth was needed (how important nationalist leaders/reformers/events brought women to mainstream)
The liberation of women get emphasis as major backdrop in the development of India when social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, I.C. Vidyasagar, Jotibha Phule, M.G. Ranade etc decided to propagate and fight for the upliftment of women. Among many social evils like Sati, Pudah, child marriage, restricted widow marriage, female infanticide etc , was the major problems of low status and illiteracy given to the women.
Although crusaders like Phule contributed a great deal in promoting girl education, but significant progress was taken up when nationalism started growing in the minds of the people. Women was not considered as an liability rather an asset , and her equal participation was sought in the struggle. This automatically lead to raising her status, promotion of girl education, from employed as cheap labour in the fields they were asked to spin cloth, women starting organizing their own groups, marched hand in hand with students and men during various movements whether is may be swadeshi or non cooperation or quit india .
Gandhiji beleived in equal participation of women in every sphere of life, hence was promoted the idea of women activation by him. Many women leaders came to the front, like Annie besant, Kadambini Ganguly, Sarojini Naidu, Usha Mehta etc who contributed significantly in different capacities during different periods of struggle. They came out as the symbols of liberation of women. Even some women joined revolutionaries as was seen in Kakori consiparacy case, chittagong loot, jhansi brigade of INA. Many ladies like Madam Bikaji Cama also took the pride of women to international stage and unfurled the capacity of woman working from abroad for the national movement .
Thus all these events and digninatories, throw the light on the greater participation and liberation of women during the nationalist movement
Insights and my dear friends please review my answers and give ur feedback
Second half of the answer is completely relevant. Introduction is poor. (it doesn’t talk about your answer, but it answers)
1)How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement?
Rise of pace of nationalist movement was in sync with rise of liberation movement of women. Indian national movement which was aimed at political freedom of country spread to all sections of society. Participation of Women was one of major factor in its political and reform movements. Which in turn not only provided greater strength to nationalist movement but also provided emancipation of women who was till that time tied in shackles of customs and Maryadas.
In first decade of 20th century status of women was largely unchanged with few exceptions such as laws against sati and widow remarriage. Their political participation was negligible, their literacy rate was much worse than their male counterpart.
With the Bandematram movement after Bengal participation and Home rule movement under leadership of Annie Basant, Women found role models. Real change observed after arrival of Gandhi on centre stage in Freedom struggle.
Gandhiji encouraged participation of women in freedom movement and started this from his home. KAsturba gandhi was active participant in activities Gandhiji. All these things prepared base for women empowerment and many women leaders emerged in national congress such as Sarojini Naidu among others.
With civil disobedience women participated in masses. This single movement changed perspective of society toward women as well perspective of women toward them self.
Karachi session of Indian national congress acknowledged women’s right and in its right’s declaration it seeks equal rights for men and women.
Women who participated in nationalist movement simultaneously provided leadership to feminist movements in country.
Thus struggle of independence for nation had deep impact on struggle for emancipation of women in country.
2) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry.(150 words)
Social forestry is afforestation strategy which try to combine goal of plantation of trees with community participation along with economic empowerment of community.
It rope in civil society and local community to participate in afforestation on waste land, deforested public land and provide motivation of economic benefit which will result from these forests.
Its aims are following:
1. To restore forests which were uprooted in the past.
2. To empower local community by providing alternative means of livelihood.
3. To increase carbon sink.
4. To increase accountability and responsibility of local people toward forests.
5. To convert waste land into forests.
Dear Insights please review this Answer
2)Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.
Non-cooperation movement(NCM) was launched on 1st August 1920. The basic ideology of the movement was to protest peacefully but all legitimate means, even if they might be non constitutional. They included boycott of government services and goods. Holding hartals, strikes, prossessions, demonstations, prayers, bonfires of foreign cloth etc were common sights.
This period elevated the concept of swadeshi. Indianisation of goods and services was promoted and practiced. Khadi was promoted , National schools and colleges came into being, judicial courts were boycotted and instead private panchayats were setup for arbitration. It changed the constitution and character of the Congress .Huge enrollment and funds were collected for the cause. Then it lead to erosion of fear from the minds of the masses and valiant, courages and determined boycott was observed by them. This was evident in the way they ignored Prince of wales, faced repression of the police. .Another prominent success of this movement was the in which Hindu Muslim unity ushered, against the British.
But there were some negative implications as well from the movement. Firstly, the movement did not remain peaceful in entirity which also lead to its backtaking. Secondly, as the cause of muslim participation faded away i.e. the caliphate issue, the muslims backtracked and even the communal elements got reactivated. Then, the movement failed to get any concessions and demands accepted by the government, rather greater repressions and atrocities were committed, leading to frustration and anger among various sections of the society.
Hence although NCM had some fallbacks , but it was the first mass struggle involving almost all the sections of the society across different parts of the country. It lead to enhancing of their means, methods, attitudes, temparement, awakening and determination to fight for their rights. It prepared them for future movements and come better prepared with more intensity. Thus its significance cannot be ignored.
Hi Vicky! The answer has good points. U used a balanced approach, which I wud differ from becasue the qn asked u to assess and not examine. But there is a subtle difference between the two. It might be ignored.
Also, without an intro, the reader(me) got flummoxed by too much data in one go. Do devote an introduction para. Rest is good!
Thank you Evika ..
Please help me by telling the difference between the Examine and Assess..
And intro I had to cutshort because of the word limit.
3) Meaning and aim of Social Forestry.(150 words)
Social forestry as the name suggests is forestry by the people and for the people. It includes conservation, management and addition of land under forests. The main purpose is to make the rural ecosystem sustainable, develop it , enhance its productivity, make it more beautiful and aesthetic. It also helps in meeting the needs of food, fruits, fodder, manure. It provides employment to people and also other non forest products which can be used commercially.Social forestry can be various degrees and has been very successful inclusive way of developing communities. Hence It has lead to social, economic, political and even cultural development of people. It also helps in conserving environment ,land and soil enrichment, reducing pressure on traditional forests, preventing natural disasters like floods etc . It is a way of Gandhian type of development leading improving standard and quality of life of people.
Good answer Vicky !
How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement?
The position of women in a society is the true index of its cultural and spiritual attainment. Women’s empowerment in India has had a long and rich history. In the era of political domination by foreigners, the women in India suffered most. A few social reform measures were taken towards the later 19th and early 20th century during the British regime.
Ironically, it was men and not women, who initially took up the cause of women’s empowerment in India. The forerunners in this field were Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayananda Saraswathi; Keshab Chandra Sen, MG Ranade, Rabindranath Tagore, Swami Vivekanand, Virsalingam Pantulu, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and M K Gandhi. It was clear that national progress could not be achieved without the progress of women. Thus the women of India came up gradually and organised themselves to work for their emancipation. The chief women to lead the nascent women’s movement were Pandita Ramabai (1858-1922), Ramabai Ranade who presided over the Arya Mahila Samaj (1862-1924), Anandibai Joshi (1865-1887), Francina Sorabjee, Annie Jagannathan and Rukmabai.
With the advent of the 20th century, demands for equal status of political rights found general expression through various women organisations. Since 1889 with Kadambini Ganguli being the first lady delegate in INC the women’s movements, which were until now expressing through individual efforts and aspirations, acquired an all-embracing collective character.
Mahatma Gandhi in the National freedom movement ushered a new concept of mass mobilization. Women constituted about 50% of the country’s total population, he, therefore, involved women in the nation’s liberation. The mass participation of women directly in the freedom struggle was the great divide in the history of (Feminist movement) empowerment of women. They shed age-old disabilities and shared the responsibility of liberation of their motherland with their counter parts. The freedom of India thus became synonymous with the empowerment of women.
Sir, its the first I entered this innovative arena of sharing knowledge. Please do provide further Insights on my Answer.
Thank you !
Sorry I tried to squeeze as much as i can !
third and fourth paragraphs give apt answer. Introduction is not so good – that it generalizes and is contradictory. You say women empowerment has had a rich history and few reform movements occurred during British rule.
Anyway, welcome on board I hope you answer all questions from now on. Good luck!
You answer is good, There are few key aspects you missed in your answer.
First : Indian nationalist movement is mostly in in era of 1880s to 1947 so Try to concentrate your answer in this time frame with brief introduction of past reformist movement.
Second: try to synch movement for women empowerment with Growth of nationalist movement, this approach will reflect demand of question more precisely.
Third: Include few key events like Karachi declaration, CDM which were milestone in women empowerment.
Over all your content is good but you should work on structure of your answer.
BRICS BANK WILL NOT SUPPLANT BUT SUPPLIMENT WORLD BANK AND IMF. “- COMMENT
Term BRIC was coined by Goldman Sachs’s Consultant Jim o Neil in year 2001. BRIC stands for Brazil, Russia, China & India, four large emerging economies of the world. In 2010 South Africa joined the group which is now collectively called BRICS.
Idea of a BRICS development bank was proposed by Our Prime minister Manmohan Singh. BRICS bank can help cash deficit countries to access the cash lying with rich countries in the bloc. BRICS bank is intended to fund the infrastructure and development projects in BRICS nations initially and elsewhere in world at later point of time.
Despite the formal grouping, each nation is very much different than the other. China is largest economy among all the nations and sitting on huge cash pile. China has shown marvelous development in Infrastructure sector like railways, highways, airports etc. and this expertise can be utilized by rest of the members. South Africa is the gateway to African continent. Once the BRICS bank has stabilized, it can lend to other regions in Africa as well. India has already exhausted its credit available in World Bank limit. India has projected the requirement of nearly one trillion dollars for infrastructure in next five years, almost half of which is expected to come from private resources.. BRICS will offer an opportunity for India to tap the money lying with other members in the block,
There has been worldwide anticipation that BRICS bank will help to break the autonomy of western dominated Bretton woods institution World Bank and IMF.IMF and World Bank generally provides loan for developing soft human infrastructure like health & education. Apart from this loan comes with certain conditions & compliance (structural adjustments) which might not be go well with growth aspiration of BRIC nations. BRICS bank can provide fund for high risk & high cost infrastructure projects.
India, Brazil, South Africa need constant cash supply to maintain their current growth rate. Under these circumstances BRICS development Bank seems to be a better option. But BRICS bank is not without the concern. China is much larger economy than rest of the block countries combined. If the BRICS development bank is finalized than China might have the bigger say in operational decision.
What will be business model of the Bank. How will it differentiate with IMF, world bank,ADB etc. How the voting structure will be designed. These are some of the questions which still left unanswered.
Thanks…you made good points.
My points for the answer:
1. WB and IMF give assistance to developing & developed countries both but BRICS BANK being south-south bank > to only developing
2. Chances that BRICS loan would not be available to projects in border areas of countries in conflict with China> china in past tried to prevent ADB loan to development of Arunachal.> such cases loan from WB.
3. Assistance from IMF\WB comes with some strict conditions like opening economy or agreeing to washington consensus. Many developing Countries not able to accept > thus BRICS bank.
4. Infra is developing very fast esp.in developing countries. WB alone can not cater > needs partner >BRICS bank
5. Ample scope of both institution to survive parallely> WB\IMF enough experience in lending> BRICS BANK CAN LEARN.
What do you think about above points?
How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement
Movement for the liberation of women started in 19th century.Many social reformers raised their voice on women issues and organized the women in groups. Raja Ram Mohan Roy strongly criticized the sati Pratha prevalent in Indian society. Ishwar Chadra Vidyasagar supported the idea widow remarriage. Many social reform groups advocate the women education but the believed that women primary focus should be her family.
In last years of 19th century,women formed their own organisation started functioning in the country.Women started participating in India national congress’s discussion session on social issues. Many women organisation were formed in Bengal,Madras,Bombay and other small cities.Women movement were mostly restricted to the women belonging to high cast & class.It was during the phases of national movement when women movements started seeing participation from lower rungs of India society as well.
Since the beginning, liberation of women movement was progressing along with the national movement but both intersected at certain point of time.With the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi,women started entering the Indian political space in large numbers..When Montague-Chelmsford started working on the constitutional reforms under pressure of national movement, Women’s India Association also put forward its demand for political rights.During second round table conference,All India women conference (AIWC) prepared a memorandum to be submitted to franchise committee. Women participated in civil disobedience movement,salt satyagraha ,quit India movement and rural satyagrahas. A section of women also joined revolutionary groups and went to jails as well.Participation in national movement provided them a sense of confidence and earned them respect for their sacrifice.
At Karachi session of Indian national congress ,resolution for fundamental right was passed which gave equal rights to the women.In 1939,under the chairmanship of J.L.Nehru a committee was formed to establish the role of women in planned economy.National movement gave several opportunities for women activists to demand their political & legal rights and to raise their voice against social mal-practices, which they utilized to its fullest potential.
Nice Answer, You touched most of the points in your answer. You could have mention about some Women Leader of nationalist movement which provided leadership to feminist movement (Sarojini Naydu) as well role model..
Social forestry is typically afforestation, by the people for the welfare of the society as a whole, on barren and non usable land. The concept gained central theme with the fast depleting tree and forest cover leading to higher vulnerability to ecological balance, It is driven by the principle of collective responsibility and develops a stakeholder mentality in the mind of people.
Major Aims of social forestry are:
1. To increase the forest and tree cover and create a healthy and sustainable environmental setup.
2. To sustain traditional source of firewood and food to local people and tribals.
3. To promote awareness and importance about the trees and plants.
4. To prevent soil erosion and other negative impacts of soil degradation.
5. Increase community participation and monitoring.
My points for the answer:
1. WB and IMF give assistance to developing & developed countries both but BRICS BANK being south-south bank > to only developing–>BRICS is not south-south,its IBSA block which is south-south
2. Chances that BRICS loan would not be available to projects in border areas of countries in conflict with China> china in past tried to prevent ADB loan to development of Arunachal.> such cases loan from WB.–ADB has autonomy of Japan (nearly 30 percent capital)Specially China will look at BRICS to counter this dominance
3. Assistance from IMF\WB comes with some strict conditions like opening economy or agreeing to washington consensus. Many developing Countries not able to accept > thus BRICS bank.–good point
4. Infra is developing very fast esp.in developing countries. WB alone can not cater > needs partner >BRICS bank–good point
5. Ample scope of both institution to survive parallely> WB\IMF enough experience in lending> BRICS BANK CAN LEARN.–good one
1) How did the movement for the liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of the nationalist movement?
Women witnessed long social boycotts and evil practices in Indian society. Gender discrimination was a blot on Indian society which was changed during the course of 19th century and withered away to a large extend in the 20th century. There were multifarious reasons and causations that led to liberation of women.
The growth of intelligentsia class especially in Bengal and Maharashtra brought the deplorable conditions of the women to forefront. Continuous efforts from individuals like Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal and Panduranga etc in Maharashtra led to abolition of Sati, promotion of window remarriage and girl education. This stimulus benefitted the national movement during Swadeshi movement in which women were at vanguard in carrying out protests and picketing of liquor shops.
Further impetus was provided by Gandhiji who reckoned women power as the main challenge to British authority and promotion of Swadeshi items. During the periods of Non cooperation movement Gandhiji brought women into nationalist mainstream discourse by giving them the opportunity to picket shops, boycott government products and organize mass protests by carrying out mock funerals and promoting charkha and khadi. Various women were brought into political platform and as representatives of India in Britain.
In addition to that, women organizations were formed at regional levels and they actively participated in national mobilization and raised their voices at different platforms for different reasons. They even took to the arms to fight colonial power and established underground radio communication network for disseminating nationalist idea. The active participation in quit India movement helped in establishing a free Indian fighting force.
Hence, foundation stone for the emancipation of women was laid by early nationalist who emancipated their social status and by providing them the political strength, the later nationalist made women a formidable power.
Q2)Form a critical assessment of the non-cooperation movement.
On 1st August 1920, the day given by Mahatma Gandhi as deadline to Viceroy Reading to accept the demands for civil liberties, the NCM was started. The NCM provided a vent to Indians feelings against repression and exploitation by the Colonial Empire, which were boiling for long and they could not get a good opportunity after since Swadeshi Movement.
Since it was the first big movement under the leadership of Gandhiji, and also due to the political awareness created by grass root congress workers and others among the masses of rural India, the mass involvement in the movement was huge. It is often quoted as first true whole India mass movement. The path adopted by movement was such that everyone including rural peasant to urban elite could easily follow it. Everyone had their part to be done- Children could participate by refusing to go to Govt Schools, Women could say no to foreign clothes and bangles; Lawyers could stop going to courts ; Priest could stop taking anything which contained foreign sugar; and toddy shops could be forced to close down. Along with Khilafat Movement, the NCM was able to shake the whole Colonial empire throughout the country.
The basic principle of non-violence guaranteed to people no repression by authorities even if the protest was done in their own premises and in front of them e.g. schools, courts etc. This created a fearless attitude in people towards the British. It also established the Identity of Mahatma Gandhi as a successful leader at the national level. Thus this movement can be said to be the founding stone of future struggles.
On February 6,1922 the infamous Chauri Chaura incident in which mob torched a Police station along with Policemen, caused the movement to be called off causing great dissatisfaction and resentment in the country towards Congress as well as Mahatma Gandhi but in a longer perspective it even firmed the trust of people in the leadership capabilities and their patriotic credentials.
Thus overall it can be said that the NCM movement gave a big opportunity for the country to get together to fight against Colonial Empire and proved to be a lighting torch for all the future movements.
Insights please review. if possible give a rating out of 5 stars as well.
Good answer. But it could have been better.
Non Cooperation Movement was first movement launched
by Congress on national level after four decades of
preparatory work to awaken masses to political consciousness.
Movement succeeded on many counts. It draw its support from
larger sections of society and on a wider scale.It demonstrated
that peoples have a capacity to participate in nationalist politics
by their courage, sacrifice and fortitude in face of adversity and repression.Hindu-Muslim unity in spite of communal violence in
Malabar was a major achievement.
Stage was set to launch mass civil disobedience, but Gandhiji
withdraw movement due to Chauri- Chaura violence. Immediately
it appeared that it was a wrong decision. It demoralised active
political workers.When nation was ready to fight for freedom,
withdrawal could act as a going back further and accepting
But NCM has a weaknesses too. Instead of wider penetration,
many sections of population were left out of it. And mass movement
has its own limitations too. It has inherent tendency to ebb after
certain heights.Mass enthusiasm which was evident all over
country during initial phase receded towards end of 1921.In most
parts of the country students, shopkeepers, lawyers resumed
Govt was in no mood to negotiate and had resorted to suppressive
measures. It put the prominent leaders behind bars, banned public meetings, newspapers, rallies and disbanded voluntary corps.
Though withdrawal of NCM in the immediate context was going
back one step but in the long run it provided opportunity to consolidate, recuperate, gather strength and retaliate with double force.
Opportunity was well utilised by Congress doing constructive work and
Civil Disobedience Movement witnessed more powerful and more
wider participation than NCM.
How did the movement for liberation of women receive a great stimulus from the rise and growth of nationalist movement.
A In Indian society women were considered weak and lesser compared to males therefore practices like female infanticide, child marriages, polygamy, sati were widespread. Under the British rule due to spread of modern education the issue of female exploitation was taken up by social reformers like Raja Ram Mohun Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar, Dr D K Karve etcand provided initial trigger to struggle for equal status for women in the society.
With the effort of social reformers many positive reforms were introduced like ban on Sati, increase in age for marriage. Social reformers gave emphasis to women education and established schools and colleges. Therefore an educated class of women emerged who were capable of taking up women’s issues.
During Swadeshi movement women came out of homes and participated in processions, meetings and picketing. Gandhi ji gave a special role to women in national movement as his non violent methods were based on mass struggle and constructive work at ground level. Therefore earlier phase of national movement the non violent methods adopted by congress gave women the platform to come out and participate with men on equal footing in processions, picketing. Indian National Congress too took up women’s issues under special wing National Conference and Bharat Mahila Parishad. Important women leaders working in Congress were Annie Beasant, Sarojini Naidu who worked to ensure political rights to women and reform the existing personal laws.
During the later period Socialist and Communist ideology spread among the national leadership and women participated in revolutionary activities too like Chittagong armoury raid. Few important names are Kalpana Dutt, Pritilata Waddedar, Santi Ghosh, Suniti Chowdary.
Therefore as compared to pre national movement times, women were placed in a better position during the national movement.
Form a critical assessment of non co-operation movement.
A. Non Co-operation Movement (NCM) to raise voice against the Rowlatt act. Jalianwala Baug Massacre and Martial law in Punjab. Simultaneously Muslimd were unhappy with the British because of the treatment to the Caliph of Turkey.
Gandhi ji took up both the causes and launched NCM, it was the first all India level movement organized by Congress. NCM was non violent in nature and the methods adopted in Swadeshi movement that is Boycott of educational institutions, foreign goods, law courts, popularizing Charkha and khadi, taking out processions, hartals.
NCM was able to reach all provinces and at all levels. Participation was on a very large scale by students, peasants, workers, tribals and women also participated. There was complete communal harmony though government tried to incite Hindu-Muslim divide.
Most important impact of NCM was on Indian National Congress. The organization structure was reformed with formation of 15 member working committee and linguistic Provincial Congress Committee to keep in touch with people in local language. Membership of Congress increased many fold with reduction in membership fee and facilitated spread of movement to the masses.
Thus NCM was the 1st all India level peaceful mass movement and it was successfully received support of the people. Critics point out that sudden withdrawal of NCM after an incidence of violence in a village, demoralized the masses who were ready to take the movement further to civil disobedience and therefore radical and violent methods were adopted by youth after withdrawal of NCM. However resorting to violent methods would have led to violent repression of the movement by government and its eventual failure.
Meaning and aim on Social forestry.
A Social forestry is the method of utilizing fallow unused land for growing trees such that it is beneficial to the environment and the people. It is very important that local people participate in protection and management of such forests.
The increase in human settlements and activities has resulted in degradation of surrounding land and in rural areas forest is exploited by fuel, timber, fodder etc. Social Forestry was recommended by National Commission of Agriculture to address these concerns. Tress should be planted on the sides of roads, railways, rivers, canals, community land
I have two questions which are very probable in one way or the other. Please provide answers (esp. Sagar, RV,Lakshmi, Vipul, Abhish, Tushar and everyone else here) to help me out.
1. “BRICS BANK WILL NOT SUPPLANT BUT SUPPLIMENT WORLD BANK AND IMF. “- COMMENT
2. “Will BRICS OUTSHINE IBSA? WHAT WAY SHOULD IBSA BE EVOLVED TO MAINTAIN IIMPORTANCE.
“BRICS BANK WILL NOT SUPPLANT BUT SUPPLEMENT WORLD BANK AND IMF. “- COMMENT
This was the statement made by BRICS explaining conditions which led to formation of BRICS bank. According to them bank provides collective foreign exchange and funds for financial developmental projects in addressing the needs of emerging and poor economies. It tackles under development and currency volatility. The 2008 economic crisis made developed nations to follow protectionist policies which are not conducive for global recovery. They are against to this policy. International financial institutions like World Bank and IMF are failing in meeting the growing demands for funds. So they are interested in reforming these institutions using huge savings of country for investment. Also they would like to bypass the need for rushing to these western dominated and Britain woods system which grants loans with attached conditions. Most often these conditions are not conducive to implement in the sociopolitical condition of the targeted country. In such a situation BRICS is feeling that this bank will be supplementary to that of existing banks. They don’t have the plans to replace these traditional institutions. On the other hand World Bank is willing to make partnership with this. But before that bank should have clear ideas like capital composition, governance structure location and bank president. At the time of Asian economic crisis in 1997 Japan came with similar proposal like Asian monetary fund in line of IMF but later U.S and IMF blocked its progress. So BRICS should take care all such problems. BRICS is having 40% in world’s population and 25% of worlds GDP. So BRICS bank will have the capacity to influence the global economic condition
sir did i use the directive (comment) in proper way
I think your answer doesn’t explain ‘HOW’ BRICS bank supplements WB/IMF. It is Bretton Woods (not Britain Woods)
sir pints like
protectionism by developed countries, huge countries savings in the form of investment, lack of funds from wb and imf, their dominance by obligations can addressed by this bank so it can serve supplementary to wb and imf. this is what i mentioned for how it can do supplementary work. won’t they serve the purpose?
except the second point we both made similar points i think. any way welcoming ur spirit of questioning. thank u
The recent decision to establish a bank by BRICS has generated lot of attention. Various analysts have projected it to be a new alternative to the discriminatory Bretton Woods twins – World Bank and IMF. However, it would be too hasty a conclusion to make.
Firstly, though the US and EU economies are passing through tough times, and there share in world’s GDP is declining, they still have great influence on the world’s economic system. US is still the world’s leading economy and EU and US put together have a huge share in the quota of IMF. The economic hegemony of IMF and World Bank dominated
by US and EU will be difficult to break for BRICS.
Secondly, much of the success of the economies of the BRICS can be attributed to the economic order created by the IMF and World Bank. China and India stand to be benefitted most by the era of globalization and rapid growth of trade. To establish a new order would be both difficult and undesirable for BRICS.
Thirdly BRICS is not a cohesive group and there are a large number of difeerences than there are simlarities. India and China have long unsettled border issue, China and Russia share long border and history of disputes, India and brazil have differences over agriculture exports etc. These conflicting issues will hamper the growth of a BRICS bank.
BRICS BANK however can play a role of a supplement to these global institutions. These institutions are heavily biased towards the Western countries and often ignore the interests of developing economies. BRICS can step in to fill that gap.
Hey, you made very nice points. You brought very different perspective. i think I stressed more on the part ‘BRICS cannot SUPPLANT’ while you have given more stress to ‘WILL ACT AS SUPPLEMENT’.
If answers of Shubhangi and yours is combined, it would make a great answer.
In BRICS fifth annual summit, the idea of BRICS development bank has taken firm shape and since then through multi-level interactions it progressed towards making firm proposal in 2014’s summit. Though it has raised concerns over taking power from existing multilateral organizations like IMF, World Bank or ADB; the leaders of BRICS have maintained their views that it will just complement existing institutions.
The need for BRICS bank arises from following factors:
– The funds availability from IMF or World bank are insufficient to meet the demand of BRICS
– The poor governance increases the delays in financing
– BRICS accounts for 40% of world currency reserves ($ 3.67 trillion) which could be used to drive economic growth in key areas
– It will allow BRICS to exercise its influence on world economic and geopolitical issues
Though there has been fears that BRICS might attempt to abandon to expand free trade or even roughshod over aid conditions in poor countries, but many also argues that BRICS fundamentally lacks coherence which limits its chances of big changes.
Great disparity in size of economy & intense competition within the group, lack of clarity over BRICS role in post-2015 development agenda and individual geopolitical & economical ambition might limit the potential of BRICS bank. Issues of funding capital requirement, distribution of voting rights and capital allocation are yet to be addressed by BRICS group.
In this context, it’s important to note that even a successful CMIM plan to create forex reserve pool between china, Japan, Korea and ASEAN has been able to create fund of only $240 bn which is only 1.5% of total GDP of member economies. Thus it indicates that creating an institution which can supplant IMF or World Bank requires a lot of co-operation and trust which at present, BRICS don’t enjoy.
Thus, it is safe to assume that BRICS bank would increase the investments in critical areas and increase the trade among the members but unless BRICS create a desired coherence to succeed it will just be supplement of existing multilateral institutions.
With more brainstorming the response could be written as
– Explain the need of BRICS bank following up with an para to highlight how it could be very good supplement of IMF or WB
-Explain the challenges like lack of cohesion in BRICS and dependability on developed countries > following up with a para to summarize
Insights I have on confusion regarding question cum answer booklet. I have a habit of framing points in rough before writing actual answer. In new Qtn cum Answer booklet would it be possible to do this?
I think they will provide space for rough work at the end of the paper. In UGC-NET question paper, I don’t find such space though. May be you can frame your points with pencil in the margins and then write answer.
Thank you insight
Why land reform was not included in center or concurrent list but state list? Any rationale ?
I think agriculture is state subject and land distribution and dependency ratio is not same in all states, it varies in each state, and resource distribution like minerals also varies so state only can protect its interest, if given to center then it cannot fully do justice and it will act in collective manner, if concurrent centers law prevails whenever center feels it can act in own manner so it may have been in state list.
We are a quasi union state. Or quasi federal state. Whichever way you look at it, land has to be a state subject. First of all there is the problem of distribution of land that was faced by each part of the country upon independence. This not only entailed various systems of working the land (ryotwari; zamindari etc.) but also the fact that the land was predominantly concentrated in the hands of a few sections of society- Zamindars, The jenmi’s etc. Therefore land reforms had to account for this as well. Moreover, once you give something like taxes of Agriculture to the state, you cannot state that the State only has a usufructuary right in the land.
What you want to do is have a gander at Entry 18 and 30 of the State list in the Seventh schedule to the Constitution of India. Draw a connection between those two things with what is stated above.
To add another element to this: remember that land reforms were started (if I am not mistaken) In Madras presidency by the Rajagopalachari administration after the 1937 provincial elections; the point being that in any system once a certain privilege is provided to a group, to withdraw the same is impossible.