Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge – Day – 31

QUESTIONS ASKED – DAY – 31 (20/08/2013)

 1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals. 

 2)How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?

3) Write a note on Mughal Architecture (150 words)


  1. Shubham
    2 Votes


    1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.
    As the Congress and the Laegue could not come to any agreement on the fundamental issue of the unity or patition of India, the Cabinet mission was send to India to seek in association with the Viceroy an agreement with Indian Leaders of the principles and procedures realting to the constitutional issues.

    Firstly, they rejected the Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan on various grounds. The establishment of Pakistan would not solve the problem of communal minorities. Also, disintegrating the transportation, postal and telegraph systems and dividing the armed forces of India would be injurious. So the mission suggested that there should be one central government covering atleast some specified subjects.

    The part of the proposals concerned with province-wise grouping was interpreted differently. Muslim League took the compulsory grouping of the provinces to be the corner-stone of the whole edifice of these proposals and would not even think of a compromise on that issue. Congress on the other hand thought that making of groups was optional for the provinces. Finally, the mission decided in favour of the League’s view.

    With some reservations, the cabinet mission was accepted by Muslim League and Congress. However after the July 1946 elections which gave the Congress 209 seats in an assembly on 296, fearing that this will eclipse Muslim League in the assembly, a huff resolution was passed by Muslim League withdrawing its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and to register their annoyance they passed the Direct Action resolution for the achievement of Pakistan.

    • Rate This Response!


      Hi shubham. I feel that your answer lacks proper direction. While it says “analyse” the reactions of congress & league, you have not done that.

      Introduction is OK. It could be written in a better way.

      You have used 1st para for telling the proposals. You have used ‘firstly’ but then further enumerations are missing. Most of the proposals are missing. You have written the logic behind the proposals which was also not required.

      In 2nd para, you have analysed the stance of congress & ML toward one of the proposals. Others proposals are totally missing which was explicitly asked in the question.

      In last para, as a conclusion you have told about the fate of proposal & reaction of ML but not analysed it.

  2. Itsmesagar
    3 Votes


    1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.

    Ans- Cabinet mission plan was proposed to achieve the dual objective of coming up with a mechanism for Independent India & of making an interim government. The proposals can be enumerated as-

    (1) No division of India & restriction on communal representation.
    (2) Interim cabinet to be made of indians.
    (3) Constituent assembly to be formed on democratic principles. It is to be formed of the representatives from provinces & princely states.
    (4) Union govt. to have limited powers i.e. Finance, foreign affairs & communications.
    (5) All residuary powers in the hand of provinces & princely states.
    (6) Representation of provincial legislature to be divided into 3 different groups of provinces.

    Congress accepted some of the proposals while rejected others. While it accepted the proposals on constituent assembly, it rejected the proposals on weak centre & interim govt. This stance of congress can be understood from the fact that accepting a weak centre could have provided more powers to provinces & princely states. At that time, there was a lack of nationality in the provinces. This could culminate into the governance with a weak centre & may lead to division of India in future. As far as interim govt. was concerned, one of the three groups that were made, contained all the provinces which were demanded by muslim league to be formed as Pakistan. This could lead to division of India & Pakistan too & congress was totally against the division of India.

    Muslim league rejected the plan. The apprehensions of ML were that congress could change the plan after getting majority in constituent assembly. This can lead to compromise of muslim interests. Moreover, demand of pakistan was rejected in the plan, which irritated the ML & they thought that the plan is not a pro-muslim plan.

  3. lakshmi prasanna
    2 Votes


    What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.

    Cabinet mission plan is a composition of three cabinet ministers of England appointed by British government in1946 to negotiate with Indian leaders for transfer of powers to India. After coming to India it as given following recommendations:

    They rejected the proposal of dividing India and restricted communal representation. Two tiered federal plan for union of states of India and allowing center to interfere only in finance defense and communication. It allotted all subjects except union subjects and all residuary powers to provincial states. All subjects and residuary powers to princely states. Proposed establishment of interim government where all members are Indians and viceroy with minimum influence. Constituting constitution assembly having elected members of 293 from British provinces and 93 members from princely states. For this they again divided British provinces into three sections recognized India’s right to cede from commonwealth.

    Congress accepted the proposal of constitution assembly. But rejected interim government because disproportionate representation is given to Muslim league. They opposed weak center and dividing India into small states because they are against to decentralization and interested in strong center.

    Muslim league initially accepted the proposal but congress declared that it would change the proposal through its majority in constitution assembly, for these they rejected it. Later they gave strong move towards demanding Pakistan and declared it is the only course left to the Muslim league. Fixed Direct action day on 1946 august 16

  4. RV
    1 Vote


    In the aftermath of the Quit India movement ,Cripps offer , revolt by the INA and the vacillating loyalty Indian Civil services the British were convinced that nothing short of transfer of power would pacify the Indians .Hence the Cabinet Mission Plan comprising of A.V. Alexander , Pethick Lawrence and Sir Stafford Cripps were designated the task of chalking out a plan for peaceful transition of power to India.

    The main proposals included rejection of the notion of Pakistan as it would have entailed administrative , economic and defence problems besides affecting regional ties and establishing a community based division which would be seen as a failure of British bureaucracy .
    However they did suggest three grouping of states A denoting Hindu majority and B,C muslim dominated regions and regions were allowed to come out of groups after a period of 10 years.

    They suggested setting up of a Constituent Assembly through indirect elections by the provincial assembly members. The groups A,B, C were to have individual and joint sittings to frame the constitution .

    They sought to establish a three tier government at provincial ,state and Central level in the meantime defence , communications and external affairs would be vested in a common centre.

    Congress welcomed a unified India approach and accepted the Proposals with Nehru’s view that once the Constituent Assembly was formed they would be sovereign to make their own decisions. They however objected to the compulsory grouping norm that went against provincial autonomy and also wanted elected members from the Princely states.
    The Muslim League envisioned the grouping of B and C as bedrock for future Pakistan but Nehru’s statements led them to withdraw their support and launch Direct Action with the slogan of “Lekar Rahenge Pakistan , Larke Lenge Pakistan” which led to unprecedented communal feelings and mass killings.

  5. vipul
    1 Vote


    How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?
    First generation of nationalleadership emerged during the freedom struggle. At that time, leadership was raising it voice against the alien rule. Until they were able to analyze the nature and purpose of alien (British) rule, it would have been difficult to frame their strategies to carry forward the national struggle.
    Indian intellectuals initially believed that British prowess in Industries development could be utilized in rapid industrialization of India. But their hopes remain unrealized with the passage of time. At the same time, wide spread poverty among Indians caught the attention of national leaders. The believed that most important problem of Indian population was the economic one and that rapid industrialization was the one ray of hope to overcome poverty.
    National leaders like Dada Nairoji, G,K Gokhale, Surendra Nath Banerjee directly or indirectly blamed economic policies of British rule for the underdevelopment of country. National leaders considered that import of handicraft, export of raw material, use of Indian soldiers in wars and expansion adventures, agriculture rent hike, railways, salaries & retirement benefits of British employes in india etc, as big burden on Indian economy. National leaders mentioned that India has been deprived of it capital & wealth to serve the non-Indian (British )interest.
    National leader’s earlier demands for the reform of administration and sharing the political power were based on their assumption to use this instrument for influencing the economic policies for the welfare of people. National leaders succeeded to make people conscious about the economic exploitation of British rule over a course of time.

  6. RV
    1 Vote


    The early nationalist realized that behind the visage of “benevolent rule” laid the grim reality of economic exploitation and subjugation in the realms of trade , finance and industry.Econoic colonialism of British progressed in three phases later identified by the nationalist which were :
    1. Merchant Capital Phase post battle of Plassey
    2. Free trade Capitalism between 18th and 19th Century and
    3. Finance capitalism from 19th Century till Independence

    The earliest economic critique was provided by Dadbhai Naoroji through his “ Poverty and Un-British Rule in India “ in 1867 which established the drain theory through the various home charges , interests and tariffs.Later works by R.C. Dutt and Mahadev Govind Ranade further stressed on the destruction of handicrafts and indigeneous industries with the evil twins of trade barriers and foreign capital investment in the country. The earlier hopes of modernization of the country at the hands of the British was shattered and that the Indians earned were the bleeding local industries and agricultural plains bleached by the bones of the impoverished farmers and labourers. This realization was to make economic nationalism the mainstay of the political struggle in the times to come

    The early nationalist leaders stressed on the fact that economic development was of paramount importance and hence there was a need to favour the setting up of manufacturing industries with Indian Capital and protect the interests through trade barriers for imported goods.
    The British prided themselves with the increased exports and remittances back home .Their policy of plundering the banks of Ganga of all its goods and pouring them down at Thames stirred even the Moderates and led to the proclamation of Swaraj and Swadeshi in the later years. This realization was to make economic nationalism the mainstay of the political struggle in the times to come.

    • Rate This Response!


      Hi RV. While you have included most of the relevant points in your answer, the structure & coherence is somewhat weak. Overall, it’s a good answer. :)

      • RV
        Rate This Response!


        Thanx Sagar wil try to improve that ! Dont you think Gandhi and his theory will not fall in the domain of early nationalist leaders ?

  7. 3 Votes


    2)How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?

    Ans- The tendency to keep the economy, labor & capital issues within domestic control is called economic nationalism. Before the industrial policy reforms of 1991, economic nationalism was very much evident in Indian economic policies. There were many reasons behind this, but the most important reason was that the policies were made at the time of independence & the maker of those policies were nationalist leaders.

    Nationalist leaders like Dadabhai Naoraoji, who first brought the british plunder in attention of Indian masses. Wealth from India was being transferred to britain for Home charges, Upkeep of administration in India etc. Apart from this, peasants & weavers were destroyed due to diabolic policies of british govt. Cotton industries which were flourishing very well, was also devastated. The theory proposed by Naoroji made the later nationalist leaders to favour the control of economic policies, labour in the hand of government just after independence because only by this way the status of the exploited could be improved.

    The other nationalist leader who had profound impact of Indian economic policies was Gandhiji. He always promoted indigenous products like hand woven cloths in order to stop the plunder of wealth from India. His concepts of Swaraj & decentralization of government made people aware of nationalism. He always promoted cottage industries. His views when carried forward in Indian economy after independence led to nationalism in it.

    So, we can say that due to the works done by early nationalist leaders, we have found the reflection of economic nationalisation in our economic policies.

    • Abhish Agarwal
      Rate This Response!


      I somehow find there is a disconnect between the question and mention of 1991 reforms. I would have avoided mentioning that rather than I would have mentioned terms like colonial economy, drain of wealth. You should also mentioned about R C Dutta, Poverty and Unbritish rule by Naroji. calculation of per capita income. I remember one of the points of discussion in 1850′s was rupee-sterling conversion, plantation labor issues, imposition of import tariff, Lytton’s Afghan adventure causing economic burden. These were also early demands of INC after its foundation. These are all signify economic nationalism.

    • Rate This Response!


      Insights, please review.

    • Rate This Response!


      You have misread the question. Though question appears as confusing, the clue is in the phrase – ‘Early nationalist leadership’ – which gives a lead to your answer.

      By early ‘national’ leadership we mean the contribution of leaders in the latter half of the nineteenth century – which you have explained in the second paragraph.

      Their economic critique of British policy in India influenced the later leadership of national movement profoundly and laid the foundation for the demand of ‘self rule’.

      Post-independence, the economic policies of government were not influenced by the work of early nationalists. Nehru with his team of economists adopted a mixed economy. Russian model inspired five year plans. Also they despised Capitalism because of the Great Depression like events and (fear of) the role of foreign capital in imperialism (Nehru was an independent thinker – From Wikipedia: . On India’s independence in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India controversially chose Shanmukham Chetty as his Finance Minister despite the latter’s well known pro-British leanings. Shanmukham Chetty died on March 3, 1953).

      Focus should be on how the work of early nationalists influenced the ‘economic nationalism’ along with the political nationalism during the struggle for independence.

      • Rate This Response!


        Thank you for the clarification,but i feel that the question should be framed in such a way that should leave no space for ambiguity. :)

      • Rate This Response!


        Insights, i am still doubtful about the use of the phrase “economic nationalism” in the question. I went through these webpages-

        These let me thought that economic_nationalism is more about closed economy & protectionism rather than capitalism or socialism. The arguments which you have provided for post-independence india are not related to protectionism or closed economy.

        • Rate This Response!


          I know the question is confusing – it should have been “During the national movement……”

          Read this:

          In the article you provided: ” the subsequent history section identifies economic nationalism’s rise in the late 19th century, the impetus of crisis after 1929 and its institutionalisation after 1945″

          Economic nationalism was a sort of movement in the West during and after the Great Depression. In India it stemmed from the work of early nationalists.

          What I infer is, work of early nationalists contributed to the growth of economic nationalism which in turn led to political nationalism. During this transition phase, the nature of economic nationalism was such that it mirrored the work of early nationalists.

          You may take the argument to post independence India’s economic policies too. But I doubt the context doesn’t demand it. May be one can just mention it in the conclusion. (Moreover, the question was asked in the history section of the 1998 GS-I question paper:-)

          Also I searched many economic books and nowhere found the mention of ‘economic nationalasim’ as policy or strategy in the post-independence India. Bipan Chandra has written a whole book on it but it is restricted to national movement phase.

  8. vipul
    1 Vote


    1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.
    Cabinet mission arrived India in March, 1946. Unlike Cripps mission, Cabinet mission was sent to India to conclude the freedom of India. Cabinet mission’s main objective was to make arrangement for interim government and to devise a mechanism to frame the constitution of India. Cabinet mission had discussion with all political leaders and announced its recommendations in May 1946.

    Some of the important proposals of Cabinet mission were:

    1) Cabinet mission supported the idea of undivided India and rejected the Muslim league’s demand for separate Pakistan. Cabinet mission did not favor the communal representations.
    2) Cabinet mission also proposed to form of constituent assembly with representation of provincial & princely states. Provincial legislatures were break up in 3 groups. Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, NWFP were put together in group to protect the minority (Muslims) autonomy. Majority of this group falls under today’s Pakistan.
    3) Cabinet Mission also proposed of forming an interim government with all Indian members except for viceroy.

    4) Mission also recognized India’s right to separate from the common wealth.
    5) Cabinet mission proposed for a three-tier loose federal structure. It gave very limited powers to center (first tier) to deal with foreign, finance and communication matters. The intermediate tier was to comprise “groups” to be formed by Provinces (if they chose) to deal with certain common interest.All the residue powers were vested in provinces & princely states (bottom tier).

    Congress had its reservation on the Cabinet mission’s proposals. Congress accepted the idea of formation of constituent assembly but it was not in favor of a weak center as proposed. Congress also did not like the proposal of having so many fragmented states. Congress did not like the idea of having an interim government with viceroy who would still retain the overriding powers. But this proposal pleased Muslim league to counter the congress dominance.
    Muslim league initially approved the plan. But fearing that congress could change the proposal once in majority, Muslim league rejected the plan. Muslim league reiterated their demand for a separate Pakistan.

  9. 2 Votes


    3) Write a note on Mughal Architecture

    Ans- The salient features of mughal architecture can be given as-
    (1) It marked the revival of islamic architecture in northern India. It was a mixture of persian, Indian & various other styles which were brought to India by the mughals.
    (2) The most important architectural features of mughal monuments in India are-
    (i) Big domes with constricted necks
    (ii) Slender minarets at the four corners
    (iii) Big gateways
    (iv) Intricate Ornamentation
    (v) Big hall 

    (3) One of the most significant invention in architecture was that ofCharbagh. It is a Persian-style garden layout, in which the main building is put at the centre of a quadrilateral garden, divided by walkways or flowing water into four smaller parts.
    (4) Chhatri as a decoration became famous during mughal period. It was a small turret made of four small coloumns supporting a dome with chajja.
    (5) Six mughal buildings have been declared world heritage sites- Agra fort, Fatehpur sikri, Taj mahal, Red Fort, Lahore fort & Lahore shalimar gardens.

    • Rate This Response!


      Insights please comment on all my answers.
      Thank you.

    • Rate This Response!


      The question asks you to write a ‘note’ – which, according to Merriam Webster dictionary, means ‘a scholarly or technical essay shorter than an article and restricted in scope’.

      Here, from first sentence you are giving salient features of the Mughal Architecture. Instead, you have to briefly explain its evolution, extent, important contributors, its form and its influence.

  10. umesh
    1 Vote


    cabinet mission of 1946 to india aimed to transfer power from british raj to india leadership along with independence .formulated at intiative celement atlee ,the prime minister of the united kingdom,the mission consiSted the lord pathick lawerencr sir stafford cripps,a.v.alexander.
    purpose of the mission was to:hold prepotory disscusion with the elected reprentatives of british india and the indian states in order to secure agreement to framing the constitution,setup a constitution body,set up an executive council with help of indian parties

    the mission held to talks about two majour indian parties indian national congress and all-india muslim league .both partise planned to determine a power sharing between hindu and muslims to avoid the communal dispute..they came up some ideas likes muslim majority provinces stay together and hindu majority states be together …in power the centre would be dealings with foreingers affairs and defence and of the up to states goverment ….muslim league couldnot accept any changes to the terms ……it was the plam 16may……..but it didnot workout because ofv indian national congress wanted to the more powerfull centre goverment. british came with this idea india should be divided in to majority as hindu majority india and muslim majority india after known as pakistan…….

  11. Shubhangi
    1 Vote


    “How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?”

    Economic nationalism which developed during the beginning of 20th century aimed at mobilizing the masses by highlighting the exploitative nature of economic policies of British which ruined traditional handicraft and village industries in India and left it to abject poverty.

    Economic nationalism developed due to work of early nationalist such as Dadabhai Naroji and R.C. Dutt. Many other nationalist during late 19th century highlighted economic exploitation of India in various ways. First, Drain of Wealth theory of D.B. Naroji explained outflow of Indian capital in the form of salaries, interest payment and as payment of Home charges. Second, many nationalist related poverty and destruction of handicraft industreis to laissez faire policy of Britsh. Third, some nationalist such as P.C. Ray, V.O. Chidambaram Pillai and B.G. Tilak promoted economic nationalism by boycotting British goods and promoting Swadesi. And finally, skewed tariff structure agaist Indian goods and triangular trade system with China were not unknown to early nationalist as other means of deindustrialising India.

    The above developments in economic nationalism especially drain of wealth and Swadeshi became the agenda of INC to mobilize the masses during Non-cooperation and Civil Disobedience movement. Moderates and extremist both demanded reduction in government expenditure on the basis of drain theory. Idea of Swadeshi became the part of constructive program of Gandhi during 1920s. Swarajist demaned reduction of tariff from within the legislature. Many industrialist such as G.D. Birla supported economic nationalism through financing INC to gain better protection to Indian goods and industries. Karachi resolution on Economic planning extended idea of swadeshi by seeking nationalisation of key Industries and reserving some industries such as coastal shipping for Indians. Economic socialism of Nehru also had its root in the works of early nationalists.

    Therefore, the early work of nationalist to reveal exploitative nature of British developed as a political force of economic nationalism to throw British out of India at later stages.

    • Rate This Response!


      It is a good answer. Interesting that you brought out the roles of industrialists too. That is a very good point.

      You crossed word limit. 315 words (limit is 250 words)

  12. abhish Agarwal
    1 Vote


    I somehow find there is a disconnect between the question and mention of 1991 reforms. I would have avoided mentioning that rather than I would have mentioned terms like colonial economy, drain of wealth. You should also mentioned about R C Dutta, Poverty and Unbritish rule by Naroji. calculation of per capita income. I remember one of the points of discussion in 1850′s was rupee-sterling conversion, plantation labor issues, imposition of import tariff, Lytton’s Afghan adventure causing economic burden. These were also early demands of INC after its foundation. These are all signify economic nationalism.

  13. tushar
    2 Votes


    2)How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?

    Economic nationalism refers to the detailed study of the ill effects of British colonialism on Indian economy done by the earlier nationalist. They carried out detailed and scientific study to assess the actual impact of colonialism on Indian economy. These findings were then used to educate the common masses and build a feeling of resentment against foreign rule among the masses.

    The early nationalist leaders like Dadabhai naraoji, Romesh Chandra Dutta did not start mass political movements. the feeling of nationalism was quite low and there was not much clear understanding of the ill effects of colonial rule in India. through their works like naraoji’s Poverty and un-British rule in India and R C Dutt’s ‘An aconomic history of India’,
    they were able to establish the ‘econoic drain theory’. they asserted that British had subjugated Indian economy for their own interests.

    The British rule was projected as a benevolent rule good for the Indian masses. There were relatively better law and order conditions and the British administrators declared that the british rule was good for India. however, the economic drain theory brought by the nationalists exposed the real face of colonialism.

    Farmers, artisans, traders were made aware that there growing poverty was due to the british rule in India. Money draining out from India in the form of Home charges, biased trade policy was bleeding India economically.

    The economic critique of colonial rule was an effective step in building consciousness among the masses that the foreign rule was not good for them. A topic as simple and related to the reasons for economic hardship was easily understood by them. Thus it proved to be strong tool for building nationalist feeling against common enemy. This resulted in reducing the british hegemony as well. This consciousness helped the later
    leaders to build various movements and spread them to large areas.

    • tushar
      Rate This Response!



      Please review.


      • Rate This Response!



        Good answer. I felt you could have mentioned few more important names and their critique – Ranade, G V Joshi, Gokhale must be mentioned as the question asks about ‘work of early national leadership’. More depth, more marks. Anyway, structure is superb.

        • tushar
          Rate This Response!


          Thanks for suggestions!
          Yeah I missed this part. Should have included the criticism of British economic policy and budget in the legislatures also. Need to revise!

  14. SwaS
    Rate This Response!


    The Cripps Mission was an initiative of Clement Attlee in 1946,the PM of UK and mission consisted of Lord Pethick-Lawrence,Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V Alexander .The purpose of the mission was to hold talks with the elected members of provinces and princely states to secure an agreement for framing the constitution and set up a constituent body for the same.
    Proposal of Cripps Mission in May,1946:It was promulgated in May 16,1946 ,it recommended to create united dominion of India as a loose confederation of provinces .The key proposals were:
    1. creation of united dominion of India
    2.Muslim majority states to be grouped together (i.e Sind,Punjab and NWFP as one group and Assam and Bengal as another group)and Hindu majority states to form a separate group.
    3.The Central Government would have powers to make legislation on defence,commuincations and foreign affairs while the rest of powers would belong to the provinces coordinated by the groups.
    The plan was not successful as Congress opposed the idea of grouping of provinces with the intention of balancing each other at the Central Legislature.So,the British proposed an alternative plan on June 16,1946 .This plan sought an arrangement of dividing India into Hindu majority area and Muslim majority area later renamed as Pakistan.The princely states were permitted to either accede to dominion or declare independence.On July 10 ,Jawarhar Lal Nehru held a press conference in Bombay declaring that Congress had only agreed to be part of Constituent Assembly and it regarded itself free to change the Cabinet plan as it thought best.The Congress opposed the plan as it would make Indian didvided into smaller states.The Viceroy began organizing the transfer of power to a Congress-League coalition. But Jinnah and the League condemned the new government, and vowed to agitate for Pakistan by any means possible. and organized Direct Action Day where over 5,000 people were killed across India,To end the disorder and rising bloodshed, Wavell encouraged Nehru to ask the League to enter the government. While Congress leaders were opposed to conceding to a party that was organizing disorder, Nehru conceded in hope of preserving communal peace.
    League leaders entered the council under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan, But the council did not function in harmony – separate meetings were not held by League ministers, and both parties vetoed the major initiatives proposed by the other, highlighting their ideological differences and political antagonism.So, Congress leaders expressed the view that the coalition was unworkable. This led to the eventual proposal, and acceptance of the partition of India.

    • Rate This Response!


      The word limit is 250 words (you have used 419 words). You just have to analyze main reactions of both the parties. Also, formation of constituent assembly is not mentioned as one of most important proposal is not mentioned in your answer..

  15. phani
    Rate This Response!


    What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.
    After the ww2 , clement atlee’s .labour party came to power in England and had sent a cabinet mission to give a raod amp for an early and dignified exit of the british from india under sir Stanford cripps , pathic Lawrence and Alexander.
    The cabinet mission plan proposed a union of india containing both british india and princely states with provinces divided into three groups with Group A being the hindu majority areas , Group B being the muslim majority areas and group C containing Bengal and assam. They were against the partition of india for political , financial and security reasons. The powers rest with the federative center are defence , communications and the residuary powers went to the provinces which can confer some of their powers to the regional groupings . the provinces should not change the constitution for 10 years and later have the option to form their own. Power will be transferred to an interim government and a constituent assembly will write a constituent for the federation.

    Initially both congress and league accepted the proposals as INC thought the provincial autonomy would not dither the federation as they had a chance upto 10 years and League considered the Group B states had the pretext of a separate muslim country. The difference of opinion regarding the constitution of the interim government at the center finally lead to INC reverting back followed suit by the muslim league fearing the majority of caste hindus in the constituent assembly would not give them ample and adequate opportunities

  16. phani
    Rate This Response!


    Write a note on Mughal Architecture (150 word)

    Unlike the british , mughals came to india and made it their peramanent residence , this attitude shows in their architecture. Mughal architecture is a culmination on indo-persian style. Many building constructed in Maharashtra and other parts of north india show the elegance of indo saarsanic style of mughals. The architectural history of mughals start with akbar , went to its zenith during shajahan. the main features of mughal larchitecture are construction of mausoleums in large park like enclosures , double dome , extraordinary pietra dura and calligraphy on the monuments. They constructed forts ,Palaces , gardens , mausoleums , masjids. Fatehpur sikri , jama masjid , humayun tomb ,buland darwaza , taj mahal , hazrat mahal , mughal gardens, akbars tomb etc are standing testimony for mughal architectural grandeur. Placing of massive dome above the four walled enclosures and minarets are standing features of mughal architecture.

  17. Anjali
    1 Vote


    Cabinet Mission arrived in India to form consensus on constitution making
    procedure, but failed to evolve consensus and proposed its own plan.
    Though Congress and Muslim League accepted it, later ML withdraw its
    acceptance to the plan.
    CM proposed that the Constitution of India should take
    following basic forms.
    *There should be Union of India with Executive and legislature which will deal with Foreign affairs, Defence and communication and raise finances.
    *Provinces with full autonomy and residuary powers.
    *Formed three group of states with hindu majority, muslim majority, and Bengal
    and Assam in separate group.
    *Constituent Assembly would be elected by Provincial Legislative Assemblies
    *The members of each provincial legislative assembly would be divided into three groups General, Muslims and Sikhs and each group would elect its own representative.

    Congress and Muslim league interpreted the plan in their own way.
    Congress assumed Plan rejected Muslim Leagues demand of
    separate Pakistan. But its objection was to the grouping of
    states in three categories.Though it joined interim govt, participated
    in elections and joined constituent assembly.

    Muslim League was quite unhappy as plan directly rejected its
    demand of separate Pakistan but it felt that basis of Pakistan implied
    in Plans scheme of compulsory grouping.It joined the interim govt participated
    in elections but disturbed by the overwhelming majority of Congress
    in Constituent assembly and refused to join it. It withdraw its support to Plan.
    As congress went ahead with Constituent assembly meeting ML launched direct Action day to fulfill its demand of Pakistan anyway.

    Proposed Constituent Assembly could have been provided a apportunity
    to Congress and ML to iron out differences and evolve consensus to address
    minority concerns, but fear of ML of majoritarianism prevented it from joining Constituent Assembly and it led to partition of country.

    2 Votes


    3) Write a note on Mughal Architecture:
    The Mughal architecture occupies a significant place in the history of Indian architecture.The Mughal architecture developed with the efforts of Akbar.he successfully incorporated foreign influences into indigenous style.Some of the well known features of Mughal architecture are round domes, high minarets,mehrab,open courtyards,pillars etc.A notable feature of the Mughal architecture was the use of red sand-stone.They were extensively used for the building of forts and palaces such as Humayun’s Tomb,Agra Fort,city of Fatehpur Sikri etc.However during later period the red sandstones were replaced with white marbles when the stress was more on the beautification of buildings with the use of coloured design,precious and semi-precious stones,gold and silver waters and minute carvings. The glory of Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shahjahan who was credited with the construction of several architecture marvels ; “Taj-mahal” being the foremost of them and Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Moti Masjid etc. being the others.

  19. hasan
    Rate This Response!


    1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.

    Cabinet mission plan was constituted by then prime minister of Britian Clement Atlee .Stafforfd Cripss was one of the member of this plan .The basic aim of cabinet mission plan was to transfer power from British empire to responsible Indian government.For the said purpose cabinet mission plan came India in the year 1946 .Mission’s member hold discussion with two largest party of that time Congress and Muslim Leage. Congress was in favour of strong centre while Muslim wanted a united India but states must be given right to secede from Union if it want.Cabinet mission Plan has proposed to form constituent assembly to frame constitution for India.
    Constituent assembly was formed in the leadership of Pandit Nehru designated as vice president .Later On Muslim League joined this.In constituent assembly the view of congress and Muslim League were antagonistic with each other so this led to withdrawal of muslim League from constituent assembly.
    Congress also declared Muslim Leage’s demand for weak centre as invalid .It also declared that throughout freedom struggle the ideals of secularism was followed so at the end of this movement it cant declared itself as representing Hindu iterest. On the other Muslim league demanded safeguard for Muslims .When Muslim League withdrawal from constituent assembly it vigorously demanded creation of Pakistan as separate country.Direct Action was initiated by Jinnah.This led to wide scale communal violence throughout country .Ultimately cabinet Mission plan failed to fulfill Its purpose.At this juncture ,British Government sent Mounbatein As viceroy and divide country into two separate sovereign state.

    2)How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?

    Nationalism is a feeling for love and well being of ones’s country.Economic nationalism means to take care and to fight for the economic loss of one’s national asset or wealth.
    If we see early national movement of India we have great examples before us who have not only criticized British empire for economic drain but also presented a chronological picture of economic exploitation of colonial rule.One of the early nationalist in this area was Dadabhai Naroji. He has studied economic condition of 100 years of colonial rule of India and compare it with that of Mughals and Ancient period.He has found that the condition of peasant ,artisian,potters,blacksmiths,businessmen etc were much better than in colonial period.People were starving,tax collection were increasing day by day but in leau of those taxes mere lip service has been done .Whatever development is being carried out by colonial power in India was only was its economic exploitation .Railways for raw material evacuation.School and colleges were not adequate .Whatever school and colleges were opened ,these were to create man power for help British administration .For the first time people of India and intelligentsia realized this economic exploitation through work of Dadabhai Naraoji.

    1 Vote


    How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?
    By the later part of 19th century the Britisher’s policy of exploitation and subjugation resulted in the large scale poverty and wide spread famine and hunger deaths.These events drew the attention of intellectuals such as Dada Bhai Narauji,R.C.Dutt,M.G.Ranade etc. They analyzed the situation and came to conclusion that the so-called benevolent British regime by their discriminatory trade and tariff policies were actually emptying the treasury of India and making it poor day by day. Dada Bhai Narauji in particular,in his book ‘Poverty and Un-Brithish Rule in India’ explained the drain of wealth theory.The Britishers through their policies were sucking the money out of India. The whole British Administration,the maintainance of army,their ambitious expansionist policies,home charges etc.were paid by poor Indians. The early Nationalists quickly understood that it can be prevented only by forming some formal association. The Indian National Congress was established by these intellectuals in 1885 to persuade their colonial masters not to exploit India anymore. The work done by these economists aroused the conciousness of Indian middle class. The concept of Nation and Nationalism pitched high day by day.The work done by these early Nationalist provided platform for more radical leaders such as Lal-Bal- Pal to arouse the feeling of Nationalism and led to glorious struggle for independence from the clutches of Britishers.

      Rate This Response!


      INSIGHTS please review to my both answers.
      thank you,

      • Rate This Response!


        It answers only half the question. We have to explain how economic nationalism during national movement mirrored the work of early nationalists – which can be shown through few examples of strategies adopted by the later leadership. Swadeshi movement is one classic example. The language and flow is very good though.

  21. Evika
    1 Vote


    1) What were the proposals of the Cabinet Mission? Analyze the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals.
    The Cabinet Mission announced its resolution in May 1946. Its important proposal were:
    1.Federal government at the centre embracing both British India and princely states.
    2.The Union would deal with defence, foreign affairs, communications and raising finance.
    3.The rest of the powers would be vested with the provinces and states.
    4.India would be divided into 3 groups of provinces so that one would have hindu majority and the rest muslim majority.
    5.A constituent assembly would be formed to draft the Union constitution. The representatives of the Provinces were to meet separately to draw upon the constitution of the provinces in each group.
    6.An interim government would be established. And the Viceroy’s executive council will have portfolios filled by Indian leaders.
    The congress accepted the proposal relating to Constituent Assembly. However, it had objections over grouping of states that provided disproportionate representation to Muslim League, an interim government and the minimal powers given the centre, which made it weak.
    The Muslim League had objections due to its rejected demand for a separate state of Pakistan. Nevertheless, it accepted the proposals initially. But when Congress declared that it could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, it rejected the plan.
    The plan was not satisfactory to any section of Indian people, however with its rejection the last opportunity to avoid the partition of India was lost. Gandhiji had said that it was ‘the best that the British Government could have produced.’

    • Evika
      Rate This Response!


      Insights, please review. The ‘analyze’ part is tricky.

      • 1 Vote


        You have answered it very well. Yes ‘analyze’ part is tricky – but with practice it become easy. Analyze doesn’t mean explaining through lengthy sentences (some think so).In this answer you have done it well. You have examined the stand taken by the Congress and League separately as question demanded.

        • Rate This Response!


          Insights, i am confused now. I can’t see the analysis part here. Does straight away telling the reaction of congress & ML counts as analysis? And if this is analysis, then if the statement of question would be something like- What were the reactions of the Congress and the League to the proposals? How should the answer of Evika change accordingly?

          • Rate This Response!


            Observe the words ‘However’ in the penultimate paragraph and ‘nevertheless’ in the last paragraph and its following sentence. Within one or two sentences she has examined the stand taken by both the parties. May be she would have given 4 important proposals of the Cabinet mission and analyzed latter part more, but within the word limit (she has used 242 words), the answer is good.

            • Rate This Response!


              “However, it had objections over grouping of states that provided disproportionate representation to Muslim League, an interim government and the minimal powers given the centre, which made it weak.”and “Nevertheless, it accepted the proposals initially. But when Congress declared that it could change the scheme through its majority in the Constituent Assembly, it rejected the plan.” Are these statementsstating the reactions or analyzing the reactions. In my view, these are just stating the reactions. Analyzing would have included more in-depth explanation for the reactions in my view.

              • Evika
                Rate This Response!


                Thank u insights. Appreciate your help in clarifying my doubt.
                Sagar: Writing directly that congress was against grouping and providing the reason abt it being disproportionate representation are different. The later is what constitutes an analysis. Likewise, reasoning out ML’s withdrawing their agreement and the last para forms part of analysis.
                Or so I guess on the basis of Insights review. I shud reduce the no of proposals and try to give a more in depth answer as u rightly pointed out.

  22. Evika
    Rate This Response!


    2) How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?
    Economic nationalism refers to an economic critique of colonialism, which was the most important contribution to the development of nationalist movement in India by its early leaders.
    In the 1st half of the 19th century, there was a general agreement on the importance of the British in modernizing India. M.G.Ranade agreed that ‘economic transformation on the basis of capitalist enterprise’ should be made the primary economic policy.
    Dadabhai Naoroji, an industrialist, pioneered the task of making Indian aware of the economic disabilities of foreign domination. He put forward the idea that Britain was ‘draining and bleeding’ India which was the reason for perpetual poverty. Also, he established subsistence-based poverty line that helped Indians gain a realistic idea of the prevailing situation.
    G.V.Joshi, G.K.Gokhale and G.S.Iyer closely analysed the different aspects of economy and raised question regarding nature and purpose of British rule.
    The early nationalists also highlighted the plight of traditional Indian handicraft, which had suffered due to British policies.
    They also criticized the taxation policies of the British saying that it overburdened the poor while making the bureaucrats richer.
    Tilak pointed out that railway was not to serve India’s industrial needs, but to help foreign goods reach domestic markets.
    The economic drain theory formed the basis for Swaraj movement, as prior to the theory, the nationalists had merely demanded a share in power. Dadabhai Naoroji had laid down the goal of national movement as self-government. It also helped in mobilizing the masses for India’s freedom struggle.

  23. vipul
    1 Vote


    Mughal Empire was founded in 15th century .First two rulers Babar, Humayun mostly spent their tenure in between wars. Reign of Akbar was more or less peaceful. He was a great patronage of art. Grand mosque and palaces built in Akbar’s time had influences of Islamic and Indian traditional architecture. Palaces and mosque at Fateh pur Sikri (First planned city of Mughal Empire) and Akbar tomb in Sikandara are great examples of this amalgamation. Tajmahal constructed by Shahjahan in memory of his wife is the supreme masterpiece of Indo-Islamic architecture.
    Some of the prominent features of Mughal architecture are:
    • Use of domes with constricted necks
    • Use of red stone & white marble as building material
    • Use of Slender minarets, large hall, massive gateways and delicate ornamentation
    • Mughal architecture major difference from other Islamic architecture is that Mausoleums were architectural masterpieces in comparison to the mosques.
    • Influence of Persian architecture (Char bagh style) is clearly visible in Mughal architecture
    Humayun Tomb & Tajmahal are famous examples of Char Bagh style of persian culture, where main building is put at the center of garden divided by walkways in four smaller parts, are most famous examples of Persian influence on Mughal architecture.
    • Akbar tomb at Sikandara- This tomb is an excellent example of the fusion of Indian architecture ( use of post and beam structure)& Islamic architecture (Use of geometry) .
    • Puran Qila ,Red fort, Bualnd darwaja,Moti Masjid, Tomb of salim Chisti are also some splendid monuments confirming the greatness of Mughal architecture.

  24. Pingback: UPSC to Introduce Question Paper-cum-Answer Book For the Civil Services Main Examination | INSIGHTS
  25. Manish
    Rate This Response!


    Q) How did economic nationalism mirror the work of early nationalist leadership in India?
    A) Nationalism implies sense of belonging with one’s nation. The history is full of examples whenever alien powers tried to rule by exploitation, sense of nationalism had led the revolution. Economic nationalism is also the urge to protect jobs and capital of own economy by favouring the goods and services produced in own country. Though, in the ongoing depression of world economy, the degree of economic nationalism has both merits and demerit.
    Economic nationalism could be achieved by both stimulating the demand of local products and providing supply protection.
    In the case of demand stimulation, economic nationalism has lot of similarities with early nationalist movement. In 1905, a fraction of Indian national congress led by Bal gangadhar tilak, Bipin Chandra pal and Lala lajput rai led down the foundation of swarajhya. In three big states Maharastra, Punjab and Bangal they urged people to use domestic goods. The struggle to release the excess taxation and duties on domestic industries and locally produced goods to make them competitive were the critical areas of Swarajhya movement. The Champaran movement of 1917 and non-cooperation movement of 1922 are examples of promoting production and consumption of domestic goods.
    Though economic nationalism by providing supply protection is a popular mode but it has little in common with early nationalist movements as it was used against the domestic goods to destroy the domestic industries.
    But while the early nationalist leadership was fighting against the exploitation of nation’s resources and bringing self-reliance; in present context of integrated world economy, economic nationalism might endanger the overall economy.

  26. phani
    Rate This Response!


    one of the best answers , very interesting read…superb words and lucid presentation..