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Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge – Day – 28

QUESTIONS ASKED: DAY – 28 (16/08/2013)

1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

 2)“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”. Critically comment.

3) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)


  1. 3 Votes


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

    Ans- Directive principles are the directions from the constitution to the government. It makes the foundation of the laws which should be formulated by it. Since, at the time of independence, India was lacking in the required resources to establish an ideal socialist, secular & democratic state, it was left on future governments, to fulfill this dream.

    Liberalization & globalization has changed the picture to a large extent. It has impact on many aspects of the society. Practice of neo-capitalism , increasing privatisation, the culture of consumerism , lack of respect for environment, changing rural infrastructure & its development,increasing life expectancy- medical science developments, Changing life-style of people- rising sedentary component, exploitation of workers in private factories etc are some of the gifts of LPG policy.

    So, government is even more responsible now for working in the directions indicated by DPSP. The importance of right to education, universal health policy, decentralised governance- local self government, worker’s welfare policy, environmental protection laws, child protection laws, women welfare laws has increased manifold after the advent of LPG in India.

    India is a socialist state & opening up of market to the world may prove disastrous for its socialism so it becomes government’s responsibility to make laws which can regulate this liberalised indian market on the direction of socialism. So, we can say that principles of DPSP has gained even more importance in today’s scenario. These principles guide the government about the level of pragmatism that is expected on its part which will lead to it to be a welfare state along with a leading global market player.

    • 1 Vote


      That’s very fast! :-)

      • Rate This Response!


        :) I want your review on this.

        • Rate This Response!


          In the introduction you have to state your thesis especially in those questions where you are directed to ‘examine’, ‘comment’ or ‘analyze’. In the first paragraph you only talk about DPSP, and in the next paragraph,to a large extent positive aspects of Liberalization and Globalization are mentioned.

          There is no connection between the introduction and the next paragraph. It doesn’t give a smooth flow to your answer.

          Then arguments are weak. Negative effects of LPG must be stressed if possible with data and the related provisions in DPSP which have not been enacted or which have been enacted but not implemented well, should be stressed.

          This answer could have been better. Earlier you have written some excellent answers. :-)

  2. 2 Votes


    3) SHG and Women empowerment.

    Ans- Self help group is a village based financial intermediary consisting of 10-20 people. It has a huge significance for women empowerment which can be enumerated as-

    (1) It provides low-interest debt options to SHG members or other villagers.
    (2) It helps women in developing as a micro-entrepreneur.
    (3) Increased mutual trust & confidence helps in taking initiatives for development.
    (4) SHGs can get linked to banks to get microcredit for their cooperative activities.
    (5) Apart from women empowerment, it acts as an instrument of increasing awareness, developing leadership abilities, improvement in nutritional & health facilities in village.

    In order to attain anti-poverty agendas, many SHGs are getting linked to NGOs which further helps women in their empowerment using the resources of NGOs.

  3. 3 Votes


    ) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.
    DPSP are the principles of a welfare state in India. It is a unique blend of Gandhian ideals and the socialist ideology which talks about the commitment of the state towards its subjects. It seeks to create a balance between economic progress and competition on one hand and environmental sustainability and social and economic equity on the other. With the advent of LPG, function of government has changed from a regulator to facilitator and provides a laissez fair business environment to industries. DPSP vests government will the responsibility of equal distribution of wealth generated in globalised period.
    Globalization is based upon competition and monopolization in the market with scant regards to human work environment, wages, gender sensitivity and labour concerns. DPSP seeks to prevent concentration of wealth and property in few hands, have provisions for providing a humane work milieu, equal wages for equal work for both men and women and increase quality of standard of living of workers. It also provides for participation of workers in management of industries for better harmonization between workers interest and industrial interest.
    In addition to that globalization seeks best talent and most productive labour from the market having required skills and education. DPSP puts an obligation on the part of government to provide free, compulsory and quality education upto primary level and improve public health. That will help in the creation of a social infrastructure having wide knowledge base and a healthy productive force.
    Further it obliges government to protect and improve environment and safeguard forest and wildlife in the era of indiscriminate exploitation and deforestation based globalization.
    Hence DPSP still holds relevance in this globalised world for a better informed, productive, equity based and sustainable developmental model.

    • Vicky ….
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      Very good answer Saagar .
      The role of govt is still as a regulator . You can say its role as changed from being in the driver’s seat to a facilitator .
      Rest is all good.

    • naveen
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      Hello Sahil,
      Firstly i should say you write very good answers hence these questions to you:). 1) Where do you get these many points from? source? 2) Do you search on google before answering these questions? 3) If you search from sources then how much time does it take for searching for points and time for writing answers? 4)How long have been your studying for civils?.
      I am just curious as i want some guidance from you on this regard.
      thank you!!!!

  4. 2 Votes


    2)“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”. Critically comment.
    NAFTA (North American Free trade Agreement), a free trade agreement between Canada, USA and Mexico was concluded in 1994 to spur and increase trade, investment, exports, commerce, improve standard of living, spur competition among the bloc members by slashing down import and export duties. It was supposed that it will reduce illegal migration from Mexico to USA and Canada. However it did just opposite of its aims.
    Firstly, the highly industrialized and competitive markets of USA and Canada had rendered the industrial base of Mexico ineffective. The increase in exports from USA and Canada shattered the manufacturing base of Mexico leading to large scale employment of factory workers. This led to large scale fleeing of Mexican national workers to USA and Canada for better jobs consequently leading to increased illegal migration.
    Secondly, the most affected sector in NAFTA is Mexican agricultural sector. The free trade agreement flushed the Mexican markets with very low cost agricultural commodities from USA leading to squeezing out of petty farmers. This is important, as it resulted in spurring millions of illegal farmers to cross border to seek better employment opportunities abroad.
    Hence, it is necessary for the countries to consider immigration reforms supplemented with addressing NAFTA itself. There is a need to create a favorable and better job outlook in Mexico. Absence of these measures will continue to thwart the progress of Mexican economy and increase migration of more workers and farmers to USA and Canada.

  5. 5 Votes


    3) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)
    SHG is a cohesive group of 10 or more members coming together to implement development scheme at grass root level by combining self management with access to low cost finances. It helps the group of women to solve their problems through a participatory and democratic approach. It helps them develop entrepreneurship and leadership qualities and create awareness among other women folks.
    SHG are provided with easy and low indexed finances from banks for small business or economic activity in order to empower them economically and increase their status socially. These SHG’s are tied to industries in cities over a period of time. Recently government approved a special 7% interest indexed loans for women SHGs. Thus SHG is an engine of women empowerment

  6. lakshmi prasanna
    2 Votes


    SHG are small volunteers association of poor people who are also from the same socio economic back drop. The micro-credit provided makes them enterprising. It works as a catalyst to empower women economically and eradicate poverty. The strategy followed by them to empower women include improving literacy rates in rural areas, social custom, educating health and sanitation, environment protection by growing trees, family planning encouraging small families, and providing self employment. To support them government planned many schemes involving women SHG’s like Rashtriya Mahila Kosh, Indira Mahila Yojana, SHGs with banks was launched by NABARD in 1992, Indira Mahila Gramabhivirdhi ,Samatha, Swarna Jayanti, Gram Swarozgar Yojana, Comprehensive Wasteland Programme, Swa-Shakti scheme, Kudumbashree Programme, etc

  7. 1 Vote


    2)“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”. Critically comment.

    Ans- NAFTA stands for the North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Mexico, and Canada. This is a PTA, which is an agreement between a group of countries to levy low or zero tariffs against imports from members. The repercussions of this agreement can be given as-

    Firstly, with the reduction in import tariffs, in order to protect its farmers, america has increased farm subsidies. This has reduced the price at which american farmers export the grains flooding mexican market with american foodgrains. According to an estimate, between 1994 and 2001, the flood of cheap, subsidized American corn caused the price of the crop to fall 70 percent in Mexico. Feeling devastated, mexican farmers started fleeing illegally to USA.
    Secondly, with the removal of restrictions, american retail giants like wal-mart entered mexican market further reducing the opportunities of employment because of the low price offered by them. Many smaller traders were forced to migrate illegally to USA in search of jobs.
    Lastly, it has lead to the displacement of US workers from manufacturing industry & displacement of mexican workers from agricultural industry. NAFTA was proposed as a solution to illegal migration, since it was thought to be creating a lots of jobs in mexico which it has failed to accomplish completely.

    So, it is clear that removal of tariffs due to introduction of NAFTA has only increased the inflow of illegal migrants into USA from mexico. This can be attributed to the improper implementation steps taken by US government itself.

  8. RV
    5 Votes


    The Directive Principles envisaged in Part IV of the constitution sought to provide the Preambury rights to all the citizens in order to establish a social and economic democracy in the country.
    As per Article 37 these directives were fundamental to the governance of the country and were to serve as “Instruments of Instructions” to the legislature and the executive.

    The era of liberalization and globalization has brought about burgeoning growth of the Indian economy however it seems to have created islands of prosperity in an ocean of poverty. The Gini coefficient ascribing inequality is on the rise , land under the auspice of “public good” is still being looted and colonisalism has just given way to neo-colonialism . Worst fears of Gandhi that no amount of socialism can counter the evils of Capitalism is being increasingly realized.

    They have acted as beacon lights for the Supreme Court and are increasingly being implemented by the Government as well to offset the aggravation of imbalances . The passing of RTI , making education a fundamental right and the recent prerogatives of food entitlement and improving the deplorable conditions of women and disabled exhibit relevance of these directives even today .

    The pragmatic and humane steps of Government to bring in Manual Scavenging Bill , incorporate Corporate Social Responsibility in the Companies Bill shows the increasing realization that these directives act as bedrocks for Good Governance and economic , political and social restructuring of the society . They no longer are the “veritable dustbins of emotions” as remarked by T.T. Krishnamachari. Infact they are increasingly serving the purpose of steering India away from both the extremes of Capitalist Oligarchy and Proletarian Dictatorship.

  9. RV
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    3) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)

    A Self Help Group is a small group of individuals commonly from the same socio-economic background who acts are given micro credit to act as enterprises. It has been commonly observed that women SHG are far more efficient than all men or mixed SHG.

    Today SHG route is being increasingly taken to empower the women and build confidence to break from the shackles of non-recognition and abusive dawn to dusk tasks . It provides them with economic security , awareness and challenge the patriarchal evils of society.

    Increasing recommendations like mid-day meal responsibility to women SHG and drawing of women panchayat members from amongst them shows the renewed confidence in their capabilities and such steps wil go a long way in establishing participatory democracy.

  10. Vicky ….
    2 Votes


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.
    Answer :
    Directive Principles are the nature of directions according to which the various wings of the government need to work and keep in mind while formulating policies or allowing functioning .Liberalization stands for allowing other players of the society to play important part in management and operations of various sectors of the economy. On the other hand Globalization means connecting to various segments across the globe and allowing close to free trade for various goods and services among nations. So basically we can say the liberalization and globalisation have broken the shackles of Isolation of a country from other world, i.e. from a closed economy to an open economy.
    Everywhere, the basic role of a government is to ensure the welfare of its people, rather than profit motives. Thus irrespective of globalisation or liberalization, the basic directions in which a state should progress are an inevitable feature. These principles may differ according to society, country, prosperity, economic conditions, political environment etc. The coming of new ideas in modern era have brought a change in the role of directive principles but not eliminated their relevance. The planning may become indicative but it has to be on the lines of directive principles. Still in India, welfare aspirations make the breath of governance. Still the government has ensured labour laws, reservations, enforced Corporate Social Responsibility, setup various regulatory agencies, etc to cater the directive principles in this era.
    Therefore we can say that although the waters and winds have changed, the ship is being transformed structurally , it is stopping at various places across the globe , but still the essence, the values and the principles of the captain of that ship has not changed. It still plays a role of a facilitator.

    2) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)
    SHG are the voluntary organisation with coming together of 10-12 people with similar problems and helping themselves individually and as a team for generating resources and providing solutions to their problems. Among the SHG’s major chunk are formed by women. They help in empowering them at all levels i.e. economically, socially, culturally, politically etc. SHG help in making women self reliant, independent, also they can help their family and community. We have seen many successful examples in India like Lijjat paapad , Kudumbhshree etc . It not makes them come out of their hardships but also promotes them to stand along with expansion in all walks of life.

    • Vicky ….
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      Insights please give your comments

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        Though it is commendable that you have taken slightly different stand, I found that your answer doesn’t answer the question.

        You say that, ‘irrespective of globalisation or liberalization, the basic directions in which a state should progress are an inevitable feature’ and ‘ The coming of new ideas in modern era have brought a change in the role of directive principles but not eliminated their relevance. ‘

        Here, you have to ‘examine’ the relevance of DPSPs not the role of state in facilitating the implementation of them.

  11. pavan
    1 Vote


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization (250)
    Framer of constitution envisioned directive principles as torch bearer for state in policy making. These principles are yardstick to maintain welfare state, which focuses more on governance rather than government. Post Liberalisation and globalisation era arrived with new set of challenges and demands. Amid these emerging challenges directive principles are as relevant as they were 6 decade ago.
    Post liberalisation brought market as front runner to solve various problems; it provided capitalistic economy in which inequalities are bound to come. Moreover with liberalisation corrupt practices started to dominate. Post globalisation and after joining WTO govermnet is bound to abide its commitment to free market economy. This left million small enterprises vulnerable to face opne competition. Liberalisation on one hand speed up economic growth but on the other exploitation of environment became rampant.
    With liberal policy skewed development takes place which leads to inequality in terms of geographical and social. Areas which left behind are now becoming breeding ground for left wing extremism. Land acquisition, rehabilitations are other challenges after LPG era. These challenges can be addressed effectively if we implement directive principles in true spirit.

    One of directive principle laid responsibility on state to prevent concentration of wealth, In era of indicative planning it is Mantra for government to prevent inequality in population by approporiate tax structure and welfare measure. Present Tax slab structures and other welfare measure to prevent spread of discontent and to stop spread of violent left wing ideology are reflection of such policy.
    Secondly according to DP state should organize village panchayats which are now becoming important unit of self governance. This is one of most practical tool for decentralisation and grass root democracy.
    Thirdly DP directed state to preserve environment which is more relevant in current era and one of rapidly emerging global challenge.
    Similarly most other challenges like Land acquisition , Women issues, Child issue, Corruption and even foreign policy can be tackled if policy makers keep reminding them self about Directive principles.

    2)) SHG and Women empowerment.(100)
    From 7th Five year plan onward poverty eradication programs started (IRDP), in subsequent plans more emphasis were laid on women empowerment through these programs, Later on With Swarn jayanti Gramin swarojgar yojna more strategy was changed from wage employment to self employment through Self help groups. Recently these SGSY converged into NRLM which provides centre role for SHG for women empowerment. These SHGs now became synonyms of women empowerment. This empowerment not only providing economic empowerment but also Political empowerment, Social empowerment , Decision making empowerment and Psychological empowerment in sense of boosting their self identity. There are hundreds of success stories which clearly reflect how women empowerment can be achieve through self help groups.

    In vishwa village in MP, one decade ago status of women was very poor, then women decided to organize Village haat through help of SHG which later became group of many villages .Now thousands of women participate in these village haat, They are now economically empowered, their status in family increased significantly , they are now more aware of their rights. Recently theirt achievements are recognised and they are awarded In UNITED NATIONS.

    These achievements reflect immense potential of SHG in women empowerment

    • pavaniiit
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      Dear Insight please help to identify my weak areas

      • Rate This Response!



        329 words. You should work on word limit. It is very important. There is a tendency to use long sentences and also repetitions are there. If you can avoid them, answer will be effective. This answer is good. Please work on above mentioned areas. :-)

    • Vicky ….
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      Pavan you need to emphasize on the relevance part of DPSP’s rather than stating them .
      SHG needs to be concise.

    • haren
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      pavan, your examples are good. really that u help to fetch marks.

  12. tushar
    2 Votes


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

    Directive Principles of State Policy, contained in Part IV of the constitution are aimed at providing social and economic justice to the people. They direct the government to work for the welfare of the people. In the changed circumstances of liberalization and globalization
    their importance has increased further.

    Globalization and liberalization have integrated the economies of the world.Now the markets play a dominating role as state is trying to play a role of ‘facilitator’ rather than a ‘controller’. In these circumstances, it is possible that the private economic interests taking precedence
    over social interests. Unregulated markets can jeopardize the interests of common people. The recent Sarda Chit Fund Scam is an indication in this direction.

    Additionally, globalization has resulted in opening of vast new opportunities. India has largely benefitted from this by registering an impressive growth for last few years. However, as the
    experience tells this has resulted in growing inequalites in the distribution of wealth and a large population is still struggling for better living conditions.

    Also, it has brought the problems of land acquisition and displacement of tribal people living in forests where new mining licences are being given. It is essential that the due rights of the poor are given to them. Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, and Mining and
    Minerals development bills are steps in this regard

    Lastly, liberalization and globalization have also brought the challenges of maintaining sustainable growth. Unchecked growth of industries can lead to depletion of forests, pollution of rivers, damage to fragile mountain ecosystem. The recent devastating floods in Uttarakhand are an example of what a thoughtless and unplanned growth can do.

    Thus we see that globalization and liberalization have brought
    many challenges with them. These demand an even more proactive response from the government to establish a welfare society.

    3) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)

    SHG movement started as a group for bringing together people
    especially women and work for collective benefit of the group.

    SHG and the bank linkage programme has resulted in economic
    empowerment of women in India. The collective guarantee provided by the SHG makes it possible for the individual members to access credit which they otherwise would not be able to get. The success stories of Kudumbashree programme in Kerala, SEWA in Ahemdabad are few examples.

    Also, it has helped in improving the social status of women. Working in a group gives the women confidence and enables them to take wise decisions for themselves and their families.

    However, still much needs to be done. The SHG programme is concentrated in Southern States and has little or no prseence in poor states of Bihar or Orissa. Also, SHG are often constrained due to lack of skills. These problems need to be addressed.

    • tushar
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      Please review the answers.


      • Rate This Response!


        Good answer for the first question. You could have mentioned
        some DPSPs and their critical role in ensuring welfare of all citizens. Slightly the focus is more on the effects of LPG and less on the relevance of DPSPs.

  13. lakshmi prasanna
    1 Vote


    NAFTA was sold to the public as a magic formula that would improve 2.Mexican economy and create enough employment incentives to people at home. But in reality this turned as a disastrous policy. The Mexican people consider NAFTA as their death warrant.
    NAFTA enacted in 1994 allowed free trade between Mexico and US and established a system to settle trade disputes. But free trade effected their agriculture, industries and wages made them to attempt immigration despite of life threat. NAFTA permitted US subsidized corn and agriculture commodities to Mexican markets as a result Mexican commodities failed to compete with low price of US. Industries like walmart produced cheap goods at low price paving Mexican small scale industries closed. Wages along borders were decreased by 25%. So rather improving its economy it still deteriorated the condition. For surviving the number of illegal immigration increased after NAFTA. On the other side of border American citizen suffered with loss of jobs due to run away industries and competition with illegal immigrants under which industries increasingly benefited.
    NAFTA failed to curb immigration because it never designed as a genuine developmental program me to improve their standards of life. The subsidized formula shows that it is not to improve their economy and create employment. But on the other hand it was helpful to corporate community on both sides of borders which paid by American and Mexican poor people.

  14. sapthagiri
    3 Votes


    1. Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.
    Directive principles are incorporated in part IV of the constitution. They resemble the instrument of accession given to states in GoI act 1935. The act as guidelines to the rulers.
    LPG era:
    Post LPG era, the government has undergone a downsizing where it has shredded of certain less important activities which can be done by private while the most important social activities are still held by the government. DPSPs with a constitutional backing, provide a framework of where the government should intervene.
    1. Welfare state has been the agenda of most post world war II states, but it has gained more relevance now because of the rise of private institutions. Private serve for profit, so they serve only the ‘haves’. So for the ‘have-nots’, the state should assume the role of welfare state.(art 38, 46)
    2. The LPG era has provided for a capitalist mode of production encouraging widespread private participation. In order the ensure socialism, a goal of our constitution in preamble there is a need for intervention and DPSPs gain regard in this context.(art 39 (b)(c)).
    3. Profit earning private companies may not take into account of the condition of labourers necessitating government intervention. (art 41, 43A)
    4. Also in lieu of development, environment may be compensated. So environmental protection is important in this era. (art 48, 48A)
    5. In the era of globalisation, peace with other countries gain more prominence than before due to increased interdependence. (art 51)
    6. To equitably distribute the fruits of development to both genders. (art39(d))

    • Rate This Response!


      No introduction and no conclusion! The question is not asking you to enumerate the relevance. Yesterday also I had pointed this out. :-)You have excellent points, if you can give a good shape, your answer will be one of the best here.

      • sapthagiri
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        if i write in paragraph i fear missing many points as i may exceed the word limit explaining the issue. so i am trying this one out. the correction will be based on key, so am stressing on giving as many points as possible.
        will it be possible to write the same ans in para with all the points mentioned above within word limit?
        ans pl.

        • Rate This Response!


          Yes it is possible to write in paragraphs. I forgot to tell you, it is not ‘instrument of accession’, it is ‘instruments of instruction’ in your first paragraph above. (that point was not necessary).

          Introduction and conclusion not only give your answer good structure, they are necessary to give a flow to your answer. If not, your answer looks immature. Marks is not given to how many points you put into your answer, instead how well you have written matters.

          • sapthagiri
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            DPSPs are incorporated in part IV of the Indian constitution. Though framed with the Indian conditions that remained just after independence, they still hold high relevance in the present age of LPG.
            1. Welfare state:
            Liberalization entails free flow of private enterprise in the nation’s economy. Private enterprises serve only the ‘haves’. To serve the ‘have-nots’, the state should intervene and take role of welfare state. (Art.38)
            2. International peace and security:
            Maintaining international peace gains more credence in this era of globalisation than before due to increased interdependence between nations. (art. 51)
            3. Environment:
            In the sake of development, environment may be compensated. In this era where utmost importance is given to national development, protection of environment is at risk. So their protection is paramount as incorporated in art.48, 48A.
            4. Grass root democracy:
            In the era, local level participation is much necessary to get inputs prior to policy formulation. Citizens in information era too are inclined to have an increased say in administration. So the ideas of local adminstration hold relevance. (art.40)
            5. Equity:
            Increased private participation may lead to concentration of wealth. So the government intervention is required to nullify the concentration (art 39 (b)(c)).
            The fruits of development have not the entire section of people. So government intervention is required to correct this anomaly and take care of socially disadvantaged. (art. 46)
            The relevance of DPSPs have increased manifold in LPG era. Since government has downsized their responsibilities, their DPSPs with a constitutional set up remind the government of their foremost important duties.
            is this one ok? costs 257 words.

  15. sapthagiri
    1 Vote


    Self help groups are voluntary informal women groups aimed at bringing economic independence of women.
    1. Economically, SHGs break the dependence of women on men for their needs. Thereby it increases women decision making and increased say in day to day affairs.
    2. Socially SHGs project women as a social group instead of the earlier notion of isolated individual. The social needs of women are satisfied and increased interactions within the group make them more aware of their rights. As a group women feel more empowered.
    3. Politically SHGs are viewed as potential votebanks and so parties cannot ignore the needs of women.
    4. Psychologically SHGs by empowering women, make them realize their own potential.

  16. sachi
    2 Votes


    SHG & Women Empowerment:
    For centuries, women were treated lesser than men. Many factors were contributing for such situation. Though, today also India is male dominated society, but in current situation, a person who earns & having qualities like leadership, knowledge & awareness is considered empowered irrespective of gender.
    SHG is a institution composed of local women. They save money, use money to meet emergency needs, self -employment. Other than financial help, handling of SHG & required social meetings itself helped in developing leadership abilities among poor people, increasing awareness like school enrollments, nutrition etc. This helped in Empowerment of women to large extent.

  17. sachi
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    SHG & Women empowerment
    For centuries, women were treated lesser than men. Many factors were contributing for such situation. Though, today also India is male dominated society, but in current situation, a person who earns & having qualities like leadership, knowledge & awareness is considered empowered irrespective of gender.
    SHG is a institution composed of local women. They save money, use money to meet emergency needs, self -employment. Other than financial help, handling of SHG & required social meetings itself helped in developing leadership abilities among poor people, increasing awareness like school enrollments, nutrition etc. This helped in Empowerment of women to large extent.

  18. lrlevin
    1 Vote


    3) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)
    Self Help Group (SHG) is a group of 10-20 people, mostly from a homogeneous class (socio-economic background) who come together for addressing their common problems. SHGs have been instrumental in empowering women, who were once restricted to four walls. SHGs, through their self savings and micro-credit facility provided have strived and contributed in poverty alleviation, improving education, nutritional levels, skill development and employment opportunity, imbibing leadership and entrepreneurship qualities, participations in local governance and decision making processes. The GoI, has also promoted SHG’s by providing credit facilities at lower interest rates through NABARD’s SHG-Bank linkage program, NRLM, etc. SHG, today is a recognized Women development tool.

  19. GUDDU
    1 Vote


    Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?

    Affirmative action refers to the special provisions made by the state or the authority in favor of deprived or the excluded sections of the society. The concept of equal opportunity is a liberal notion which postulates that everyone should be to pursue there development and state should not act as a hindrance in the realization. The notion however is criticized by socialist who points to the presence of only formal sense of equality as it does not take into account the inequality of resources thus the starting line of the people is not same hence the finishing line should also not be same.

    Affirmative action thus is not reverse discrimination as sought by many scholars rather when applied rationally is the way to provide substantive equality while remaining in the framework of a liberal society.

    Affirmative action for the historically disadvantaged sections of the society has been constitutionally guaranteed and gives recognition to the concept of complex equality. The policy of affirmative action takes the form of reservation in the educational institutions as well as public sector jobs, it is to provide an economic hedge and a social standing thus having an ameliorating effect on the entire society.

    Affirmative action has its cons also, as it can be used for political gains and normally the intended beneficiary does not get the benefit. Indian supreme court has held that policies should be time-framed for if they go on forever, it itself shows the failure of the policy in uplifting the marginalized section of the society.

  20. GUDDU
    2 Votes


    Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

    Directive principles of state policy is enshrined in part IV of our constitution . It is an amalgam of policies from various perspective that state should strive to pursue to achieve an ideal society as envisaged by our forefathers. Thus the directives calls for enhanced state intervention in the various spheres of life , while on the other hand liberalization and globalization are demanding the rise and interlinking of private sectors, opening up of the economies and resorting to market fundamentalism as much as possible. International institutions are calling for ‘rolling back of the state’ and letting the private sector take over the responsibilities.

    In the Indian scenario the society and economy is still not modern and majority of population by realistic analysis can be construed as having a subsistence living thus state intervention in the economy cannot be completely abolished and as article 39 of the constitution asks the state to make provisions for living wages, to prevent concentration of wealth in few hands etc needs to be carried forward.

    The Principles have rather assumed greater importance in the era of globalization and liberalization as it has been found that the already marginalized sections of the society are impacted negatively by liberalization and for the benefits to be equitably distributed there is need of good governance which is the fulcrum of the directive principles.
    The principles ask the state to make provision to guarantee education, good healthcare facilities and providing economic security at least for subsistence level which are in high demand in the era of free trade and interlinking of economies so that the fruits of development are inclusive in nature.

  21. vipul
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    2)“NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”. Critically comment.
    NAFTA (North American free trade agreement) was signed between USA, Canada & Mexico in 1994.Agreement was signed under certain assumptions. NAFTA was expected to increase the better paying job opportunities in Mexico which would help to curb illegal migration from Mexico to US & Canada. It was expected that NAFTA would lead to increase the foreign investment in Mexico. Manufacturing & other productive Units would get the require boost of Investment. Simultaneously, products manufactured in Mexico would also get access to the USA, Canada market.

    Mexico ,like most of the countries was in-equally developed. Most of economic activities were concentrated in Northern Mexico. Supporter of NAFTA had expected the Mexican government to spend on Infrastructure ,education, health & sanitation to reap the full benefits of agreement. Mexican economy went in to economic turmoil just after the NAFTA agreement. Economic constraints further reduced the capacity of government to spend on infrastructure & welfare programs.

    After the NAFTA, foreign investment started flowing in to Mexico but mostly in manufacturing units situated in relatively developed northern region bordering USA. Poor infrastructure facilities in other regions turned out to be biggest impediment in attracting the foreign investments. During the same period ,Chinese cheaper products started flooding the US market. Mexican products could not substantially improve their share in the USA & Canada market even after the NAFTA.

    Apart from this, trade agreements destroyed the corn farming sector completely. Corn farmers in Mexico could not sustain the competition of heavily subsidized corn flowing from USA. Mexican government could not increase the tariff barriers as government had lost the policy making cushions after the trade agreement. Ultimately, NAFTA left some of farmers also out of their regular jobs.

    Supporters of NAFTA believes that Illegal migration would have been even higher if the foreign investment has not been there in northern region. Current scenario lead us to conclusion that NAFTA have not been much successful in its objective to stop the illegal migration from Mexico to USA &Canada.

    3) SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)
    Self Help group (SHG) is voluntarily organization of 10-15 members. In India, there are lakhs of SHGs working across the country & 90 % of the them have women memberships. SHGs are generally operated by the NGOs, banks & companies.
    Women empowerment is a multi-dimensional concept which consists of Economic, social & political empowerment. Out of these, Economic development is of utmost significance as it helps to sustain & support the other aspects of development.
    Women participating in self-help groups save whatever small amount they can save every month and contribute to common fund. Common fund can be further used to meet the financial need or emergency credit need of group members.
    Besides focusing on economic development SHGs also undertakes programs to spread awareness about the literacy, health & environment issues. SHGs also play a vital role to bring women from marginalized section of society in to mainstream . Women in SHGs maintain the records of membership detail, cash & loan details .Women in self-help groups meet few times in a week and deliberate on the entrepreneurial activities to be taken in future. Every members in SHGs gets the opportunity to put forward their view in discussions. Thus SHGs helps to bring women in mainstream of decision making and infuse confidence among them.
    SHGs have given women an opportunity to showcase their hidden talents. Besides providing microfinance & inter-loaning, women are provided training on food processing, tailoring etc. to develop entrepreneurial temper among them.

  22. neeraj
    1 Vote


    Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.

    The era of Liberalization and globalisation has brought a view of laissez faire. It has ushered in an era of cut throat competition, global practices and profit maximisation techniques. Such an environment has pushed the ideas of justice-social, economic and political on the back seat. Economic exploitation of the labour, deteriorating working conditions and explitation of children and women has come to the fore. Maruti strike has shown that Workers are not involved in the management. Living standards of the protelariat has sunk to a new low.

    The In a race of economic dominance, the environment and forest dwellers(including humans as well as animals) has to pay the price for the greed of human beings. Forests are depleting and the use of fertilizers and pesticids have decreased the productivity of the farms. Use of oxytocins and other drugs on animal for more productivity is another issue.Also the demand for beef etc in the world market might boost the slaughter industry. The tourism industry has put the conservation of the architectural monuments, places and objects of artistic/historic interest to the backburner.

    The advent of MnCs has adversely affected the cottage industries. Protests against FDI in retail is a burning example. Consumption of liquor and drug abuse are on the rise.

    Also, with Liberalisation and globalisation, policy making on International Relations has taken the front seat. The policies of NAM and panchsheel have been brought to the fore. Protection of interests of our agriculture, handicraft and MSMEs should be a top priority.

    The Dirctive Principles of State policy directs the state to legislate in such matters. Many legislations have been made and many other needs to be made. The recent example consists of amendment of Companies Act for assigning 2% of profit of big companies for CSR activities is a welcome step. Other legislations include Wildlife(Protection) Act, National Forest Policy etc. Thus DPSP have taken a front seat in an era of Liberalisation and globalisation

    • neeraj
      Rate This Response!


      Insights. Still less stars. Did I miss something? i gave intro + conclusion this time… whats missing?

      • 1 Vote


        You maintain the suspense till the end. Till the penultimate paragraph your answer reads excellently for , ‘what are the ill effects of LPG’ question. Just try appending the first line of last paragraph to the last line of first paragraph. Your answer becomes perfect. :-) The introduction is where you give the clue to us about what’s awaiting in the answer. Otherwise, language, flow and structure is superb.

    • 1 Vote


      I don’t know who has given you stars but in my view the comments for your answer are-

      (1) No instance of DPSP until last para. This should not happen. 3/4th of your answer is concentrated on LPG.
      (2) Rest everything is very beautiful. Both organisation & presentation of thought is pleasant. :)

  23. 1 Vote


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.
    Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) is a set of Positive and non-justifiable directions enshrined in our constitution, to be followed by state. It’s fundamental for governance.
    In the era of liberalization and globalization, markets play a vital role in the economy by providing employment, human development, improving living standards, etc. However, as market, generally works on the Principle of Profit Maximization, it is not keen about gender equality, public health problems, environmental degradation, etc. This insensitivity of Market based economy has brought in socio-economic inequalities among people (a wide gap between haves and have-nots). It only supports skilled and talented and is not bothered about universal human development. Also, industries and factories are not uniformly spread across the lengths and breadths of the country, but get developed only in specific areas where operational costs are minimal. This has created Red (Poor development) and Blue corridors (High Development) within the country.
    In such a scenario, relevance of DPSP is paramount and directs the state to intervene and guide the market for more equitable and just development. It’s based on DPSP that the government asks private entrepreneurs and PSUs to venture into businesses like eco tourism in North east states, setting up mining industries and factories in Naxal affected districts, imparting education and skills to people belonging to backward regions and economically deprived sections, to stick to strict pollution norms to protect the environment, to provide just and humane working conditions, to facilitate employ stock ownership plan, etc.
    The relevance of DPSP is not about globalization or non-globalization, but it’s about a fair and just society and would continue until such a society results.

  24. neeraj
    1 Vote


    SHG and Women empowerment.

    SHG(a concept adopted from Bangladesh) is a group of 10-20 people of similar social and economic background who have come together for economic benefits. It Almost 90% of SHGs are women groups. Giving loans, repayment of loans and saving money has given a sense of economic empowerment to the women. Also, book-keeping activities has imparted in them reading, writing and accounting skills and helped them educate themselves and their families. Regular meeting with the leaders, bankers and customers have provided them social empowerment. Now they can assert their demands over their male counterparts and justify them as well. Leaders of the village seek their support in elections which has given a sense of political empowerment. Thus, SHGs have helped in social, political and economic empowerment of the women.

  25. Anjali Motghare
    1 Vote


    As we adopted welfare state model, directive principles strive for
    socio-economic equality and holds as much relevance in the era of liberalisation and globalisation. As besides advantages of liberalisation and globalisation, it is leading to widening gap between rich and poor.

    Directive principles ask state to provide education, food, healthy working
    conditions, old age security, and environmental protection if possible livelihood means in its capacity. All these things
    hold much relevance in the present context.

    India is home to largest number of impoverished and undernourished people in of Asia, one of every two child is undernourished or malnourished.

    Still we don’t have hundred per cent literacy to provide skilled labour,
    traditional industries perished and non-availabilty of alternative livelihood means led to impoverishment.

    Globalisation led to exploitation of the cheap labour. MNCs are too powerful, they don’t care about interests of workers.

    Globalisation and liberalisation gave rise to materialistic
    aspiration which is impacting environment also.

    Directive principles if implemented properly will
    raise literacy and health standards of population and so competitive
    workforce will be available. Better means of livelihood
    will raise living standards and will reduce poverty.

    Protection of environment will help in mitigating natural disasters,
    which will help in saving lives and property we loose in disasters.

    Though globalisation and liberaliisation led to growth but for
    sustainable development, adherence to directive principles is of paramount importance.

  26. athi
    Rate This Response!


    SHG is a voluntary organisation of group of people with mostly same socio-economic backgrounds.It solves common problems through self and mutual help.It improves economic background of women through small savings among the members.As a result of SHG women became a participator in financial, political and social issues of the society.They get exposed to the democratic system. SHG creates empowerment through microfinancing which strengthens self esteem and self worth of increases the contribution of women in household and improves their social status.SHG exposed women to many government programmes and make them benefitiaries.
    pls correct my answer…insights..I am a new comer

  27. TR
    1 Vote


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.
    The DPSP are the basics of the legal framework as mandated by the constitution.
    Liberalization is the process of opening up of markets to foreign players as well as removing the domestic regulations as well as sectorwise protection . According to the experience in India, this has benifitted more the well off sections of the society which had the means to positively materialize this change e.g. large export houses which had the ability to increase the production and thus harvest the gains of zero export duties; rich industrialists who could import the expensive technology and capital goods from abroad and thus produce more at lower cost and and realise the benifits of lower import duty. While at the same time the small entrepreneurs who did not have enough means to buy expensive technology or increase productions by using cheaper import goods was harmed as he could not produce at cheaper level and thus could not compete with the goods produced by large industries or the goods imported from abroad. The removal of the protection to small industry did another harm to the small industries. According to A-37 of DPSPs, it is the duty of the State to make laws to distribute the wealth equally among all the citizens of India and to avoid any concentration of wealth. This objective was directly frustrated by liberalization.
    Again, as liberalization means increased pvt sector participation and lesser govt role in industries. This means that the livelihood security of the country is in the hands of the big corporatist as well as the foreign companies, which are motivated to maximize their benefits rather than the public welfare, this along with the fact that the liberalization indirectly causes damage to small industries making them prone to being closed down, the livelihood security and economic interests of the country as a whole and poor especially is in great danger which again contradicts the DPSP that the state should provide adequate means to livelihood and should strive towards promotion of welfare of the people.
    Thus in brief it could be said that the liberalization and globalization, which themselves are motivated by maximizing benifits is contrary to DPSPs which strive to make the State a Welfare and Just State.

  28. ekta
    2 Votes


    1. Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalisation and globalisation .

    Directive Principles of State Policy(DPSP) denotes the ideals that the State (Centre, state, local) should keep in mind while formulating policies and enacting laws. These are constitutional instructions and recommendations to State in legislative, executive and administrative matters.

    Today we are witnessing an era of liberalisation and globalisation where more and more countries are having laissez-faire state and are binded and interconnected with each other. These liberal economies give capitalists an unwritten right over making profit by exploiting natural resources, causing environmental degradation, exploiting human resources, by giving them low wages, improper and unsafe working conditions. DPSP guides State to formulate such policies amd laws so as to safeguard interest of the public, promote their welfare, empower them by providing education, nutrition and just and safe environment to work.

    In this globalised arena, where world economies are interconnected and interdependent, State (Centre) is bound to take the central stage in governance, thus ignoring the marginal and rural people. DPSP guides State to organise village panchayats and promote economic interests of Scheduled Casres, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.

    That is why DPSP are also known as Conscience of the Indian Constitutuion. However, these principles are recommendatory in nature and not a binding on the State. But at the same time, it can be seen from the existing policies and laws that DPSP are not overlooked or ignored during their formulation.

    1 Vote


    1)Why is ‘affirmative action’ important in provision of equal opportunity?
    framer of our Constitution put forward the idea of affirmative discrimination to bring the disadvantage section of our society with equal to others.
    the question is why?
    in my opinion 1) to bring those in line who started there race a lap behind to others.
    2)to eliminate handicaps(education/jobs/ social status/ untouchability etc), what was imposed on them(sc/st/obc) by birth.
    3)by this affirmative discrimination, send the true sense of independent citizen to a large section of society.
    4 )provide equal opportunity to all and count every one in the development of our country.
    It is a fact that this particular section of our society have been kept away from any kind of participation, developmental progress in our country from ancient time till now. This constitutional safe guards thus play an important role for there upliftment. But after 66 years of independence and seeing the actual progress, it(policy)need to be reviewed and put effort to bring them from bottom, rather then maintaining initial policy of Trickle Down.

    1 Vote


    DPSP is an instrument that offers the economical justice to Indians. why it is important? because legislation instructed to keep it in mind while making law and policy. Suprem Court have given so many land mark judgement in accordance with dpsp.
    Globalization, Free trade, Open market etc are invincible in today’s world. But we live in a county where 8% of the population hold 93% of the wealth. If govt. dose not intervene in policy making and let open market and free economy to do that, then soon or later the 92% of population come forward and we will face a civil war. In this demanding and challenging situation DPSP is one of the key instrument for our Government to deliver.
    useful in following way-
    1) maintain balance in economic demand and social responsibility.
    2)distribution of benefit to needy.
    3)peace and brother-hood in international relation(otherwise globalization will be meaningless.)
    4) promote local self government.
    5)universal education.
    6)empowerment of woman and socially weaker section.
    7)Protection of Environment.
    all this aspect are equally important for a batter society, and free trade, globalization etc are relevant when there is a society that can sustain it. In India as developing economy, its complex culture, various problems and demands, makes dpsp a policy as well as strategy in the hand of legislation to mitigate the evils of rapid growth of market economy in a humanitarian approach.

  31. naveen
    1 Vote


    1) Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization
    DPSP are a set of guidelines or instructions provided by the framers of the Indian constitution to the state to be followed while making laws and policies. DPSP is a combination of socialist and gandhian principles. They aim at promoting social and economic welfare of the people. Equal distribution of wealth, equal pay for equal work, providing good health care and education, employment for all, providing good standard of living and right to justice are some of the objectives of DPSP.
    With globalization and liberalization the control of state over them has reduced significantly. Globalisation and liberalization is motivated by profits with little respect to welfare of the people. It leads to unequal distribution of wealth, gender inequality, capitalism, loss of educational values and nationalism and other such hosts of issues which lead to social and economic disparity.
    With nations compelled to open their markets to foreign and capitalist domination the consequences can only get worse. In such scenarios the state has to be altogether more responsible to make laws and policies that adhere to DPSP. Some of the DPSP deal exactly with the issues arising out of globalization and liberalization and hence DPSP are more relevant in the era of liberalization than before. The policies so made should keep the directive principles in mind to address the needs of the changing society.

    • naveen
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      Hello Insights,
      This is my first answer posted here. Please provide me with your valuable feedback.

      • Rate This Response!



        Very good answer. But don’t make sweeping statements like these: ‘With globalization and liberalization the control of state over them has reduced significantly. Globalisation and liberalization is motivated by profits with little respect to welfare of the people. ‘ – you should give a balanced view. LPG is not entirely bad and state still has control over the welfare of the state.

        Both structure and language is very good. :-)

        • naveen
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          Thank you insights!!!! appreciate your feedback. I am banking on your feedbacks and comments for my preparation.

  32. Anjali Motghare
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    SHG provides first platform to women from where they get exposure
    to outside world which in turn helps to develop their personality.
    It makes women economically independent, literate and brings financial

    Through SHG women are also playing important role in uplifting their
    status in society. Women have got decision making power in household
    activities as they add to income in their family.

    SHG helped women to develop quality of leadership, decision-making and
    entrepreneurship. SHG playing important role in women empowerment but still lot needs to be done as situation is not same in all places. Where there is a need Govt. can grant them work assurance by linking its various schemes like with SHG.

  33. Asha Goud
    1 Vote


    Examine the relevance of Directive Principles in the era of liberalization and globalization.
    A: DPSP are a set of social and economic ideals delineated in Indian Constitution and it is the duty of the State to follows these in governance. The aim of DPSP is to create a Welfare State and establish a socialistic pattern of society where it is the responsibility of the state to provide basic necessities to all. Indian Society is highly heterogeneous where inequality prevails therefore in addition to political rights enshrined in Fundamental Rights, social and economic rights are provided under DPSP.
    Post Independence India adopted a socialistic pattern of economy, adopted planning, established PSU and industries were highly regulated. With LPG reforms market was opened it was expected that state take a back seat with only responsibility of regulation. It was assumed that too much state intervention distorts market. Market forces were to be allowed to work freely and it was assumed that such economy will eventually lead to equal distribution of wealth.
    However even with free market forces poverty and inequality in the society has increased. The market follows principle of maximization of profit and not welfare of people. Therefore the role of state is important to ensure that the weakest section get equal opportunity and representation. Here DPSP play a very important role, these principles act as guiding light.
    Principles such as ensuring adequate means of livelihood to all, equitable distribution and avoid concentration of wealth, ensuring living wage and equal pay to all, minimum nutrition level and basic standard of living to all, ensure just and humane condition at work and participation of workers in management are highly instrumental in establishing a equitable society.

    “NAFTA has curbed the illegal immigration of Mexicans to USA and Canada”. Critically comment.
    A: NAFTA is a trade agreement signed between North American states of USA, Canada and Mexico in 1994. The aim was to liberalize trade barriers and allow market access to each participant. The economy of Mexico was highly backward as compared to USA and Canada. It was expected that signing of NAFTA would benefit Mexico with flow of technology and capital in its market as a result would facilitate development of industries and generate employment. Thus it would curb illegal migration from Mexico to other countries in search of employment opportunities.
    However NAFTA failed to materialize the expected result. With the opening up of markets the agriculture and manufacturing sectors were adversely affected in Mexico. The highly subsidized agricultural products from USA entered into Mexican markets thus displaced large numbers of farmers. The manufacturing industry was not able to withstand the technological competition from products from the industrialized countries as a result factories closed.
    This infact led to large scale unemployment and an increase in illegal immigration to USA and Canada. The local markets in Mexico were opened to imported products but there was no support and protection provided to local producers and manufacturers against this competition. The agreement NAFTA is not flawed in itself rather its implementation remained highly unplanned.
    Market forces cannot be allowed to act by itself when interaction is between two unequal economies. The weaker economies deserve protection and support otherwise it would result in getting used up by the developed economy as a market for its products.

    SHG and Women empowerment.(100 words)
    A: Self Help Group is formed when certain number of people, belonging to disadvantaged section, come together voluntarily to form a group with aim to eliminate the social and economic disabilities faced by them as individuals. SHGs are a homogenous group formed on democratic principles, where each individual has equality and goal of SHGs is mutual benefit and empowerment.
    The SHG framework is therefore adopted for women empowerment. Many women SHGs are already functioning in rural areas. SHG – Bank linkages help its members in receiving loans for taking up economic activity. SHG also actively participate in village governance. Government of India is actively supporting SHGs for women empowerment.

    • Anjali Motghare
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      Asha your DPSP answers last part is very good, second NAFTA I learnt from your answer its also very good. SHG instead of long introduction you can add many points which helped in women empowerment.